Question Paper Previous Years

Report
CONSTRUCTORS
AND
THEIR TYPES
PREPARED BY
MURLI MANOHAR
PGT (COMP. SCIENCE)
KV,B.E.G., PUNE
What is a constructor?
• It is a member function which initializes a class.
• A constructor has:
(i) the same name as the class itself
(ii) no return type
Constructor : Def.
A constructor is a member function of a class that is
automatically called, when an object is created of that
class. The constructor has the same name as that of the
class’s name and its primary job is to initialize the object to
a legal initial value for the class.
Example:
class Student
{
private:
int rollno;
float marks;
public:
:
Student ( )
{ rollno=0;
marks=0.0;
}
:
};
//constructor
//other public members
Example : class rectangle {
private:
float height;
float width;
int xpos;
int ypos;
public:
rectangle(float, float); // constructor
void draw();
// draw member function
void posn(int, int);
// position member function
void move(int, int);
// move member function
};
rectangle::rectangle(float h, float w)
{
height = h;
width = w;
xpos = 0;
ypos = 0;
}
Need For Constructor
A structure or an array in C++ can be initialized at a time
of their declaration.
struct Student
{
int rollno;
float marks;
};
int main ( )
{
Student s1 = { 0, 0.0}
int a[5] = { 1,2,3,4,5};
.
.
}
But such initialization does not work for a class because
the class members have their associated access specifiers.
They might not be available to the outside world.
Example
class Student
{
private:
int rollno;
float marks;
public:
:
// public members
};
int main()
{ Student senior = {0,0.0}; //illegal ! Data member are not accessible
:
};
A constructor for a class is needed so
that the compiler automatically initializes an
object as soon as it is created. A class
constructor, if defined, is called whenever a
program creates an object of that class.
Declaration And Definition
class x
{
int i;
public:
int j,k;
x( )
// Constructor
{
i=j=k=0;
}
.
.
// other members
.
};
Generally, a constructor should be defined under the public
section of a class, so that its objects can be created in any function.
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTOR
1.
Default Constructors
• A constructor that accepts no parameter is called the
default constructor.
• When user-defined class does not contain an explicit
constructor ,the compiler automatically supplies a default
constructor, having no arguments. This implicitly-declared
default constructor is an inline public members of its
class.
Example: For Default Constructor
class Test
{
int ant;
public:
Test ( )
{
ant = 0;
}
.
.
};
int main( )
{
Test t1;
.
.
.
}
2. Parameterized Constructor
• Like other functions you can also write constructors that
can accept parameters.
• Such constructors are called Parameterized constructors.
Once you declare a constructor with arguments, the
default constructor becomes hidden.
• A constructor that accepts parameters for its invocation is known as
parameterized constructor.
Example : Parameterized Constructor
• class Test { int ant;
public:
Test(int i)
{ ant=i;
}
.
.
};
int main()
{
Test objects1(45);
Test objects2(75);
}
Significance Of Default Constructors
• The default constructors are very useful when you want to
create object without having to type the initial values or
want to initialize object every time with prespecified initial
values or if you want to create array of object of your class
type.
• Class test {
int a ; char b;
public :
test ()
//this is default constructors
{ cout<<“default constructors being called \n” ;
}
test (int I , char j) //constructor with argument
{ a= i ;
b=j;
cout <<“constructor with argument called \n”;
}
};
int main ()
{
test tarry [5] ;
//ok now as array can be created because default constructors is
available
test newjob (31 , ‘z’) ; // constructor with argument will be called for
this
:
};
3. COPY CONSTRUCTOR
A copy constructor is a constructor of the
form classname (classname &) . The complier
will use the copy constructor whenever you
initialize an instance using values of another
instance of same types.
• Examples
sample S1 ;
sample S2 =S1 ;
//default constructor used
//copy constructors used
Example : Copy Constructor
• class sample
{
public:
int I,j;
sample (int a, int b)
// Constructor
{
i=a;
j=b;
}
sample (sample &s)
// Copy Constructor
{
j = s.j;
i = s.j;
cout<<“\n Copy constructor working \n”;
}
void print (void)
{
cout<<i<<j<<“\n”;
}
.
.
};
When is a copy constructor called?
When an object is passed by value
void afunc (Sample);
//Sample is a class
2. When a function returns an object
Sample afunc( ); // Sample is a class and
here it is return type of afunc( )
1.
Three types of constructors supported in
c++
• Default Constructor
• Parameterized Constructor
• Copy Constructor
The standard c++11 has introduced a new type of
constructor namely Move Constructor , Which is used to
move the content of objects class type.
Special Characteristics of Constructors
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Constructor functions are invoked automatically when
the objects are created.
If a class has a constructor, each object of that class
will be initialized before any use is made of the object.
Constructor functions obey the usual access rules. Only
the function that have access to the constructor of a
class, can create an object of the class.
No return type can be specified for a constructor .
They cannot be inherited, though a derived class can
call the base class constructor
A Constructor may not be static.
Contd.Default constructors and copy constructors are
generated where needed.
8. Like other C++ functions, constructors can also have
default arguments.
9. It is not possible to take the address of a constructor.
10. Member functions may be called from within a
constructor.
7.
THANKS

similar documents