The United Nations System And Third World Development

The United Nations System And
Third World Development
A presentation at the Dept. of Political Science and
International Relations,
Covenant University, Ota Ogun State.
Oluseyi Soremekun
National Information Officer/ Officer-in-Charge
United Nations Information Centre (UNIC), Lagos
Email: [email protected]
Tel.: 0803 402 2085
The United Nations (UN) – An Introduction
• Special organisation of independent
countries formed after the end of the
Second World War in 1945. Officially
opened on 24th of October 1945.
• Created to save succeeding
generations from war, protect human
rights, establish conditions for justice,
help stabilize international relations,
give peace a more secure foundation,
help the less developed countries,
promote social progress and better
standards of life.
• The UN emblem shows the world held
in the “olive branches of peace”.
The United Nations (UN) – An Intro (Contd.)
• The UN represents the
countries and peoples of the
world but it is not a world
• The UN is a place where
people from around the world
can come and work together
to make the world a better
and safer place.
• The UN Headquarters is in
New York in the USA.
• The UN is guided by a set of
rules called the UN Charter.
The United Nations (UN) – An Intro (Contd.)
Organs of the UN
The UN Charter recognises the following as organs of the
• The General Assembly
• The Security Council
• The Economic and Social Council
• The Trusteeship Council
• The International Court of Justice
• The Secretariat
Understanding the UN system
• The United Nations System covers a
wide variety of organizational units
(centres, agencies, organizations,
commissions, pro-grammes, etc.) with
different institutional and functional
• The United Nations System consists
of the United Nations, its subsidiary
organs (including the separatelyadministered funds and programmes,
research and training institutes, and
other subsidiary entities), the
specialized agencies, and affiliated
• The organizations within the United
Nations system also vary
considerably both in size and as
regards their activities.
• Member organs of the United Nations
reporting annually to the General Assembly
and, as appropriate, through the Security
Council or the Economic and Social Council,
UN - United Nations Secretariat
UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund
UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development
UNDP - United Nations Development
UNEP - United Nations Environment
UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund
UNRWA - United Nations Relief and Works
Agency for Palestine
UNU - United Nations University
WFP - World Food Programme
UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees
UNCHS(Habitat) - United Nations Centre for
Human Settlements
OCHA - Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs
ITC - International Trade Centre
Understanding the UN system
• The specialized agencies, a term first
used in the United Nations Charter
which provides for international action to
promote economic and social progress,
re-port to the Economic and Social
These specialized agencies work in the
economic, social, scientific and technical fields and possess their own
legislative and executive bodies, their
own secretariats and their own budgets.
These include:
ILO - International Labour Organization
FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations
UNESCO - United Nations Educational,
Scientific & Cultural Organization
ICAO - International Civil Aviation
• WHO - World Health
WB - World Bank Group
IMF - International Monetary Fund
UPU - Universal Postal Union
ITU - International
Telecommunication Union
WMO - World Meteorological
IMO - International Maritime
WIPO - World Intellectual Property
IFAD - International Fund for
Agricultural Development
UNIDO - United Nations Industrial
Development Organization
WTO - World Tourism Organization
UN and Third World Development
• Noted for peace keeping
• It does more than peacekeeping and
being a forum for conflict resolution.
• Over these seven decades, new
challenges have emerged—
International terrorism; Child survival
and development; Environmental
protection; Human rights; Health and
medical research;
• Alleviation of poverty and economic
development; Agricultural
development and fisheries;
Education; Advancement of women;
Emergency and disaster relief; Air and
sea travel; Peaceful uses of atomic
energy; Workers’ rights; etc.
• These global problems
can never be resolved
by any one country
acting alone
• As the world’s only truly
universal institution, the
United Nations offers the
best—if not the only—
forum to galvanize
global action to meet the
challenges ahead.
UN and Third World Development
Promoting self-determination
and independence
• When the UN was established in
1945, 750 million people —
almost a third of the world
population — lived in NonSelfgoverning territories
dependent on colonial Powers.
• The UN played a role in bringing
about independence in more
than 80 countries that are now
sovereign nations
• Strengthening international
• Over 500 multilateral treaties —
on human rights, terrorism,
international crime, refugees,
disarmament, commodities and
the oceans — have been
enacted through the efforts of
the United Nations
• However, one of the most robust
frameworks that addresses third
world development to date is the
UN-led Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs).
Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
• Following the adoption
of the United Nations
Millennium Declaration
in 2000, All 189 United
Nations member states
at the time (there are
193 currently), promised
to free people from
extreme poverty and
multiple deprivations.
This pledge turned into
the eight Millennium
Development Goals
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty
Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
• The Millennium Development Goals
• As at 2014
(MDGs) are the world's time-bound
and quantified targets for
addressing extreme poverty in its
many dimensions-income poverty,
hunger, disease, lack of adequate
shelter, and exclusion-while
promoting gender equality,
education, and environmental
• They are also basic human rights the rights of each person on the
planet to health, education, shelter,
and security.
• MDGs support national
governments, local authorities and
citizen organizations in their efforts
to tackle poverty and inequality.
• 700 million people have been lifted
from extreme poverty
• More than 170 million people no
longer suffer from hunger
• 17,000 children saved everyday
• 6.6 million lives saved by access
and use of antiretroviral therapy for
HIV-infected people
Poverty target was met
Target: Halve extreme poverty rate between 1990 and 2015
Proportion of people living on less than US$1.25 a day
About 700 million fewer people lived in
conditions of extreme poverty
in 2010 than in 1990.
Hunger target is within close reach
Target :Halve hunger rate between 1990 and 2015
The proportion of undernourished people decreased from 24% in 1990-1992 to
14% in 2011-2013.
• The hunger reduction
target is within close
reach but requires
immediate additional
Gender parity was reached in primary
All developing regions have achieved or are close to achieving gender
parity in primary education
The primary school
enrolment ratio increased
from 86 girls for 100 boys
in 1990 to 97 girls in 2012
for developing regions.
Photo: Virgina Hooper
HIV treatment saved millions of lives
Target: Achieve, by 2010,
universal access to treatment for
HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
• Access to antiretroviral therapy
(ART) for HIV-infected people has
been increasing dramatically, with
a total of 9.5 million people in
developing regions receiving
treatment in 2012.
• ART has saved 6.6 million lives
since 1995. Expanding its
coverage can save many more.
Malaria and TB target are within reach
Target : Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence
of malaria and other major diseases.
In the past decade, 3.3 million
deaths were averted due to
malaria interventions. More than
700 million bed nets were
delivered in sub-Saharan Africa.
Between 1995 and 2012, the
cumulative total of tuberculosis
patients treated successfully
was 56 million, saving 22
million lives.
Photo: UNICEF/Olivier Asselin
Drinking water target was reached
Target: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without
sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
• In 2012, 89% of the world’s
population had access to an
improved water source, up from
76% in 1990.
• Over 2.3 billion people gained
access to an improved source of
drinking water between 1990
and 2012.
Photo: World Bank/Allison Kwesell
in 2010
Official development assistance
reached its highest level
• Official development
assistance (ODA) stood at
$134.8 billion in 2013, the
highest level recorded.
17 out of 28 Development
Assistance Committee (DAC)
countries recorded an
increase in their allocation to
Too many children suffer from
• Chronic undernutrition among
young children declined, but one
in four children around the world
show signs of stunted growth—
having inadequate height for
their age.
• However, it is unacceptable that
162 million young children are
still suffering from chronic
Many children are still denied their
right to primary education
Target: By 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be
able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
• The number of children out of
school decline by almost half
since 2000, but still 58 million
children were out of school,
half of which are from conflictaffected areas.
• More than one in four children
in developing regions entering
primary school is likely to drop
Photo; UNICEF/Ose
Preventable diseases still kill many
Target: Reduce the under-five mortality rate by two thirds between
1990 and 2015.
• Child mortality fell by 50%, from
90 deaths per 1,000 live births in
1990 to 48 in 2012. Still 6.6
million children under age five
died in 2012.
• Preventable diseases such as
pneumonia, diarrhea and
malaria, remain the main
causes of under-five deaths.
Photo; UN Photo/Mark Garten
Much more needs to be done to
improve maternal health
Target :Reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters
between 1990 and 2015.
• Maternal mortality ratio declined by
45% since 1990, but still 300,000
women died from cause related to
pregnancy and child birth in in 2013.
• In 2012, 40 million births in
developing regions were not attended
by skilled health personnel.
Photo; UNICEF/Khemka
Gains in sanitation are impressive, but
not good enough
Target: Halve, by 2015, the
proportion of the population
without sustainable access to safe
drinking water and basic sanitation.
• Over a quarter of the world’s
population (almost 2 million)
has gained access to an
improved sanitation facility since
• Yet 2.5 billion do not use an
improved sanitation facility and
1 billion people still resort to
open defecation.
MDG Progress Chart - NIGERIA
Will Target be Met?
Supportive Policy Environment
Meeting Policy
MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme poverty and Hunger
Target 1A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
proportion of people living in extreme poverty.
Target 1C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
Target 2: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere,
boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full
course of primary schooling.
MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Target 3: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and
secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all
levels of education no later than 2015.
MDG Progress Chart - NIGERIA
MDG 4: Reduce Child mortality
Target 4: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015,
the under-five mortality rate.
MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health
Target 5: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and
2015, the maternal mortality ratio.
MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases
Target 6A: Have halted, by 2015, and begun to reverse the
spread of HIV/AIDS.
Target 6C: Have halted, by 2015, and begun to reverse, the
incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
MDG Progress Chart - NIGERIA
MDG 7: Ensure Environmental sustainability
Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable
development into country policies and programmes and
reverse the loss of environmental resources.
Target 7B: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population
without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic
Target 7C: By 2020, to have achieved a significant
improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum
MDG 8: Develop A Global Partnership For Development
Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems
Target 8F: In cooperation with the private sector, make
available the benefits of new technologies, especially
information and communications
Transition from MDGs to Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs)
• Post-2015 development agenda is hinged on SDGs
• The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a new,
universal set of goals, targets and indicators that UN
member states will be expected to use to frame their
agendas and political policies over the next 15 years.
• The SDGs follow, and expand on, the millennium
development goals (MDGs), which were agreed by
governments in 2000, and are due to expire at the end of
this year.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
1) End poverty in all its forms everywhere
2) End hunger, achieve food security and
improved nutrition, and promote sustainable
3) Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing
for all at all ages
4) Ensure inclusive and equitable quality
education and promote lifelong learning
opportunities for all
5) Achieve gender equality and empower all
women and girls
6) Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
7) Ensure access to affordable, reliable,
sustainable and modern energy for all
8) Promote sustained, inclusive and
sustainable economic growth, full and
productive employment, and decent work for
9) Build resilient infrastructure, promote
inclusive and sustainable industrialisation, and
foster innovation
• 10) Reduce inequality within and among
11) Make cities and human settlements
inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
12) Ensure sustainable consumption and
production patterns
13) Take urgent action to combat climate
change and its impacts (taking note of
agreements made by the UNFCCC forum)
14) Conserve and sustainably use the oceans,
seas and marine resources for sustainable
15) Protect, restore and promote sustainable
use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably
manage forests, combat desertification and
halt and reverse land degradation, and halt
biodiversity loss
16) Promote peaceful and inclusive societies
for sustainable development, provide access
to justice for all and build effective,
accountable and inclusive institutions at all
17) Strengthen the means of implementation
and revitalise the global partnership for
sustainable development
Factsheet of UN @ 70
• Provides food to 90 million
people in 80 countries
Vaccinates 58 per cent of the
world’s children, saving 3 million
lives a year
Assists over 38.7 million
refugees and people fleeing war,
famine or persecution
Works with 193 countries to
combat climate change and
make development sustainable
UN Keeps peace with 120,000
peacekeepers in 16 operations
on 4 continents
Fights poverty, helping improve
the health and well-being of 420
million rural poor
• Protects and promotes human
rights on site and through some
80 treaties/declarations
• Mobilizes USD 22 billion in
humanitarian aid to help people
affected by emergencies
• Uses diplomacy to prevent
conflict: assists some 60
countries a year with their
• Promotes maternal health,
saving the lives of 30 million
women a year
UN works for you!
The United Nations System And
Third World Development
A presentation at the Dept. of Political Science and
International Relations,
Covenant University, Ota Ogun State.
Oluseyi Soremekun
National Information Officer/ Officer-in-Charge
United Nations Information Centre (UNIC), Lagos
Email: [email protected]
Tel.: 0803 402 2085

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