Chapter 7: Attitudes

Report
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Chapter 7
Attitudes
Attitudes
• A lasting, general evaluation of people
(including oneself), objects, advertisements,
or issues.
• Anything toward which one has an attitude is
called an Attitude Object.
• An attitude is:
– Lasting because it tends to endure over time.
– General because it applies to more than a
momentary event.
• Attitudes help us make all forms of choices
such as:
– Very product-specific behaviors, and
– More general consumption-related behaviors.
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The Functions of Attitudes
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By Identifying the Dominant Function a Product Serves for
Consumers - What Benefits it Provides - Marketers Can
Emphasize These Benefits in Communications & Packaging.
Value-Expressive
Consumer’s Values
or Self-Concept
Utilitarian
Reward and
Punishment
Attitude
Functions
Knowledge
Need for Meaning,
Order & Structure
Ego-Defensive
Protect Person
From Threats
The ABC Model of Attitudes
Affect
Way a Consumer
Feels
Behavior
Person’s Intentions
to Do
Cognition
Consumer’s
Beliefs
Components of an
Attitude
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Hierarchies of Effects
Standard Learning Hierarchy
Beliefs
Affect
ATTITUDE
Behavior
Low-Involvement Hierarchy
Beliefs
Behavior
ATTITUDE
Affect
Experiential Hierarchy
Affect
Behavior
Based on
Cognitive
Information
Processing
Based on
Behavioral
Learning
Processes
ATTITUDE
Beliefs
Based on
Hedonic
Consumptio
n
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Attitudes Toward the
Advertisement
The Attitude Toward the Advertisement is Defined
as a Predisposition to Respond in a Favorable or
Unfavorable Manner to a Particular Advertising
Stimulus During a Particular Exposure Occasion.
Determinants Include:
Attitude
Toward
Advertiser
Evaluations
of the
Ad Execution
Itself
Mood
Evoked by
the Ad
Degree to Which
the Ad Affects
Viewers’ Arousal
Levels
Forming Attitudes
• An Attitude can form in several different
ways depending on the Hierarchy of Effects
and how the attitude is learned.
• It can occur because of:
– Classical Conditioning, i.e. Attitude Object is
paired with a catchy jingle.
– Instrumental Conditioning, i.e. consumption of
the Attitude Object is reinforced.
– Complex Cognitive Process, i.e. teenager models
behavior of friends and media figures.
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Forming Attitudes
Degree of Commitment
Levels of Commitment to an Attitude
Internalization
Identification
Compliance
The Consistency Principle
Consumers Value Harmony Among Their Thoughts,
Feelings, and Behaviors, and They are Motivated
to Maintain Uniformity Among These Elements.
Cognitive Dissonance and
Harmony Among Values
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• States that when a person is confronted with
inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors,
he or she will take some action to resolve this
“dissonance”.
• Theory focuses on situations in which two
Cognitive Elements are inconsistent with one
another.
– Cognitive Elements can be something that a person
believes about himself, a behavior he performs, or
an observation about his surroundings.
• Dissonance reduction can occur either by
eliminating, adding, or changing elements.
Social Judgment Theory
Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection
Assimilation
Attitude Anchor
Contrast
Latitude of
Acceptance
Latitudes of Rejection
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Balance Theory
Considers Relations Among Elements a Person
Might Perceive as Belonging Together and Desires
the Relations Among the Elements in a Triad to be
Harmonious, or Balanced.
A Person and His/ Her
Perceptions (+ or - )
Triad
Some Other
Person or
Object
An Attitude
Object
Marketers May Use Celebrities to Endorse Products to
Achieve Balance.
Multiattribute Attitude Models
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Models Assume That a Consumer’s Attitude (Evaluation) of
an Attitude Object Will Depend on the Beliefs He or She Has
About Several or Many Attributes of the Object.
Attributes
Importance
Weights
Beliefs
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The Fishbein Model
The Fishbein Model is the Most Influential
Multiattribute Model and It Measures Three
Components of Attitudes:
Salient Beliefs
About
the Object That
Are Considered
During Evaluation
Object-Attitude
Linkages, or The
Probability That a
Particular Object Has
an Important
Attribute
Evaluation of Each
of the
Important Attributes
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Fishbein Model
• Formed by integrating (summing) the
separate evaluations of the salient
beliefs (ei), weighted by the strength
of each beliefs (bi), to create an
overall evaluation or attitude (Ao).
• Ao = Sbiei
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How Beliefs Are Acquired
• Direct experience with product.
• Information processing
–information from outside sources
(friends)
• Vicarious experience
• Inferences
Strategic Implications of the
Multiattribute Model
Capitalize on
Relative Advantage
Strengthen Perceived
Product / Attribute
Linkages
Influence Competitors’
Ratings
Add a New Attribute
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Attitude-Behavior Relationship
• Weak empirical relationship between
attitude and behavior
• Why?
–Overall evaluation of product (Ao) not
tied to situational factors while
behaviors, in contrast, always occur in a
situational context or are highly
influenced by the environment.
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Using Attitudes to Predict
Behavior
The Extended Fishbein Model is Called the
“Theory of Reasoned Action” and Includes
the Following Modifications:
Intentions
Versus
Behavior
Social
Pressure
Attitude
Toward
Buying
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The Theory of Reasoned Action
• Reflects the assumption that
consumers consciously consider the
consequences of alternative actions
and choose the behavior which leads
to the most desirable consequences.
Obstacles to Predicting Behavior
in the Theory of Reasoned Action
Obstacles to Predicting Behavior
Design
Time-Frame
Locus of Control
Correspondence
Basic Assumptions
Attitude Accessibility
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Theory of Trying
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States That the Criterion of Behavior in the Reasoned Action
Model Should be Replaced With Trying to Reach a Goal.
Recognizes That Additional Factors Might Intervene Between
Intent and Performance Such As:
Amount of Control Over Situation
Expectations of Success or Failure
Social Norms
Attitudes Toward the Process of Trying
Frequency of Past Trying of Behavior
Recentness of Past Trying of Behavior
Tracking Attitudes Over Time
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Attitude Tracking Programs Allow Researchers to
Analyze Attitude Trends Over an Extended Period of
Time. Some Dimensions To Include in Attitude
Tracking Programs Include:
Changes in Different Age Groups
Lifecycle, Cohort and Historical Effects
Scenarios About the Future
Future Plans and Confidence in the Economy
Identification of
Change Agents

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