Negotiations and Allied Post World War II Policies

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Negotiations and Allied
Post World War II Policies
SSWH18 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the
global political, economic, and social impact of World War II.
c. Explain the military and diplomatic negotiations between the
leaders of Great Britain (Churchill), the Soviet Union (Stalin), and
the United States (Roosevelt/Truman) from Teheran to Yalta and
Potsdam and the impact on the nations of Eastern Europe.
d. Explain allied Post-World War II policies; include formation of
the United Nations, the Marshall Plan for Europe, and
MacArthur’s plan for Japan.
Tehran Conference
• November 28 – December 1, 1943
• Meeting of FDR, Premier Joseph Stalin, and
Prime Minister Winston Churchill in Tehran,
Iran
• It was the first three-power war conference
attended by Stalin.
• Agreement was reached on the scope and
timing of operations against Germany,
including plans for the Allied invasion of
France. The final communiqué also stressed
the need for cooperation through the United
Nations in meeting the problems of peace.
Yalta Conference
• February 4 – 11, 1945
• Yalta- resort on the Black Sea Coast
• 2nd Wartime Conference of Allied
Leaders:
– Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet
Union
– Prime Minister Winston Churchill
– President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Issues of the Yalta Conference
• Main Issue:
– How to deal with the liberated countries of
Eastern Europe
• Allies agreed:
– Stalin agreed to enter war against Japan
following Germany’s defeat
– To collaborate in establishment of the United
Nations
– Major war criminals would be tried before an
international court
– Earliest possible establishment through free
elections of democratic governments
Potsdam Conference
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•
•
•
July 16 – August 2, 1945
Suburb of Berlin
Last wartime conference
Focal Point of Discussion:
– Immediate Allied control of Germany
– Occupation of Austria
– Demarcation of the boundaries of Poland
Postwar Territorial Divisions
• Postwar occupation and territorial division
reflected postwar realities & the new schism
between the US and the Soviet Union
• Soviets- eastern section of Germany
• US, Britain, & France- western section of
Germany
• Berlin- (deep within Soviet controlled Eastern
Germany) – controlled by all four powers
• Due to tension, no peace treaty was signed with
Germany
• In 1946, Churchill proclaimed an “iron curtain”
had come down in Europe separating the Soviet
Union and Poland from democratic &
capitalistic Western Europe
The Truman Doctrine
• March 12, 1947
• Drew the battle lines of the
Cold War
• Free v. enslaved peoples
• Implemented interventionist
policy dedicated to the
“containment” of communism
Marshall Plan
• Proposed to rebuild European
economies through
cooperation & capitalism
• Proposed in 1947, funded in
1948
• Provided more than 13 billion
dollars to reconstruct
Western Europe
Macarthur’s Plan for Japan
• He accepted the Japanese surrender on the
USS Missouri on 2 September 1945.
• Appointed by President Harry S. Truman as
Supreme Allied Powers Commander,
MacArthur directed the occupation of Japan
(1945–50), implementing generally liberal
economic, social, and political reforms, but
delaying rebuilding of Japan's industrial
economy until ordered by Truman in 1948.
• As a conservative Republican, MacArthur
was seriously considered for the GOP
presidential nomination in 1948, but he was
defeated in the early primaries.
The United Nations
• A supranational organization dedicated to
keeping world peace
• The commitment to establish a new
international organization derived from Allied
cooperation during the war
• Final version of the UN charter was hammered
out by delegates from 50 nations at the UN
conference in San Francisco in 1945
• Dedicated to maintaining international peace &
security and promoting friendly relations
• The Cold War dominated postwar
reconstruction efforts – often characterized by
ideological & propaganda campaigns

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