The U.N. and the Responsibility to Protect.

Report
The United Nations and the
Responsibility to Protect
(R2P)
Isa van der Drift
Cedar Ridge High School
What is the most important role
of the UN?
•
•
•
•
Peace building?
International Government?
Peacekeeping?
Preventing wars?
Relation to UN
• Founded on the grounds of…
o
o
preventing another World War
preventing mass atrocities
What is R2P?
• R2P is the obligation to protect
and help other citizens of the
world when
o Government can’t
o Government won’t
• Belief that nation-states are
required to act in their peoples’
best interests
Why is it important?
• We are all members of the global community
• Governments must protect their people
o
U.N. is a “global government”
• Responsibility to assist nations who can not assist
themselves
“Never Again”
• After the Holocaust, U.N. said
“never again”
• Yet, we had countless examples
of Crimes Against Humanity
(CAH);
o
o
o
Rwanda
Cambodia
Syria
• Why?
History of R2P
• Idea originated after 1994
Rwandan genocide
o
U.N. and other nations failed to
act
• Actual term originated in 2000
at the International
Commission on Intervention
and State Sovereignty (ICISS)
o
Created in the form of a
doctrine
R2P Doctrine
• Important points:
o
o
Sovereignty: responsibility, not a right
First state, then International Community/U.N.
• 3 Responsibilities
o
Prevent, react, rebuild
• Military Intervention: last resort
Military Intervention
• Last Resort
o
All others must have been
used
• Right intent
o
To halt human suffering
• Proportional
o
Minimum intervention
• Consequence of action less
than consequence of
inaction
Rwanda
• Government was unable to stop genocide
• Hutu killing Tutsis, as well as Hutus not supporting
actions
• U.N. and International Community not acting
o
Debating genocide vs. acts of genocide
• 800,000 people killed
Syria
• Bashar al-Assad using
chemical weapons against
civilians
o
Government unwilling to
protect people
• U.N. in political gridlock
• International Community
not doing anything
• Current peace talks not
working.
Central African Republic (CAR)
• Government unable to
control/help people
• Muslim and Christian
communities fighting
• U.N. refusing to help
o
Relying on other
nations
• Members of E.U. are
supplying troops
o
France, Belgium
Libya
• Fear that Benghazi would be attacked
• Military intervention used in Libya
o
o
Not a last resort
NATO- not U.N.
• Despite use of R2P, international community not
happy with use of military intervention
o
Chain of intervention
Faults with U.N. system
• Security Council
o
o
Veto Powers
Gridlock
• National security vs.
Human security
• Chain of intervention
• Sovereignty
Solutions: UNSC
• Security Council
o
o
o
Reform
Veto Powers
Pressure
Solutions: National vs.
Human Security
• Emphasize importance of
human security
• Political outlook
• People vs. Politics
o
Russia
Solutions: Chain of
Intervention
• Resolution directing specific chain of intervention
o
Prevent military involvement
• Potential chain:
o
o
o
o
Prevention
Humanitarian Aid
Negotiation
Military Intervention
Solutions: Sovereignty
• What is sovereignty today?
• Change the definition
o
o
Responsibility to protect people
Sovereignty is irrelevant when government can’t
protect
Bibliography
• "Libya Conflict: Q&A." BBC News. BBC, 20 Oct. 2011. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• "United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)." United Nations Support
Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). United Nations, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• "United Nations Official Document." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 25 Jan.
2014.
• "Central African Republic: Despite Insecurity, UN Provides Food for Hundreds
of Thousands." UN News Center. UN, 24 Jan. 2014. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• "Genocide Watch." Genocide Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• Melly, Paul. "Why Central African Republic Is Slipping Close to Catastrophe."
Genocide Watch. Cable News Network, 02 Dec. 2013. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• "United Human Rights Council." United Human Rights Council. United
Nations, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• "United Human Rights Council." United Human Rights Council. N.p., Dec.
2001. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
Bibliography
• "R2P – A Short History." RSS. United Nations Regional Information Centre for
Western Europe, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• Mutton, Jan F. "Responsibility to Protect." Dag Hammerskjöld Foundation.
DHF, Sept. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2014.
• Farooqi, Manaal N. "Responsibility to Protect: In Need of Reform." Washington
Report on Middle East Affairs. N.p., Sept. 2013. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• Olesen, Thomas. "Global Injustice Memories: The 1994 Rwandan Genocide."
International Political Sociology, Dec. 2012. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
• Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide." The Atlantic, Sept. 2001. Web. 25
Jan. 2014.
• "Learn About RtoP." Learn About RtoP. International Coalition for the
Responsibility to Protect, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2014.
Photo Citations
• http://www.standnow.org/learn/responsibility
• http://endtimeinfo.com/2011/04/responsibility-to-protect-sets-tone-for-one-worldorder/
• http://dornsife.usc.edu/calis/hslc-topic-history/
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council
• https://www.nytexaminer.com/2013/08/holding-them-to-the-promise-ofresponsibility-to-protect-contemplating-the-paradox-of-r2p/
• http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/issues/police.shtml
• http://collections.yadvashem.org/photosarchive/en-us/46924.html
• http://justiceinconflict.org/2013/02/27/a-fatal-attraction-the-un-security-counciland-the-relationship-between-r2p-and-the-international-criminal-court/
• http://rt.com/news/syria-green-light-chemical-inspection-967/
• http://www.voanews.com/content/us-official-visits-car-calls-for-violent-groups-todisarm/1813524.html
• https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/

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