Chapter 6

Report
Chapter 6
More Individual Differences
Values
• Personal values – things that are meaningful in
our lives and influence our behavior
• Schwartz’s Value Theory
– Values “represent broad goals that apply across
contexts and time”
– Values are stable and influence behavior
– Values often operate without our knowing it
Value Conflicts
• Intrapersonal
– Within the individual
• Interpersonal
– Between individuals
• Individual-Organization
– Organization’s values (culture) vs. individual values
– Impacts satisfaction, commitment, performance,
career success, stress, & turnover
Work-family Conflict
• Life values – overall values about what is
important in life
• Family values – beliefs about the importance of
family and roles in the family
• Work values– beliefs about the importance of
career success
• Value Similarity – consensus between family
members about family values
• Value Congruence – value agreement between
employee and organization
A Values Model of Work/Family
Conflict
Family
Values
General Life
Values
Value
Similarity
Work/Family
Conflict
Value
Attainment
Job and Life
Satisfaction
Value Congruence
Work Values
6-7
Recent Trends in Work Family Conflict
• Work interfering with family vs. family interfering
with work
• Norms about gender roles & housework are
beginning to change
• Culture is more important than any specific HR
program
• Good relationship with boss minimizes WFC
• Flexible work hours minimizes WFC
• Supportive spouses minimize WFC
• WFC impacts satisfaction, commitment, & turnover
Attitudes
• The tendency to consistently respond
positively or negatively to a specific stimulus
– Values are general & attitudes are specific
• Affective component
– Feelings & emotions
• Cognitive component
– Thoughts & beliefs
• Behavioral component
– Behavioral intentions
Attitude-Reality Inconsistencies
• Creates cognitive dissonance
– discomfort associated with attitude and behavior
inconsistencies.
• People are motivated to reduce cognitive
dissonance by:
– Changing the behavior or attitude
– Belittle the importance of the behavior
– Find consonant elements that outweigh negative
ones
How Attitudes Impact Behavior
• Attitude toward the behavior - +/- evaluation
of the behavior
• Subjective norm – social pressure to engage in
behavior
• Perceived behavioral control – perceived
ability to perform behavior succesfully
Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior
Attitude
toward the
behavior
Subjective
norm
Intention
Behavior
Perceived
behavioral
control
6-12
Organizational Commitment
• The extent to which an individual identifies
with the organization and is committed to its
goals.
• Related to working harder and wanting to stay
with the company
• Three components:
– Affective Commitment
– Continuance Commitment
– Normative Commitment
Affective Commitment
• Emotional attachment and identification with
the org.
– Personality (locus of control)
– Past work experience
– Value congruence
– Enhanced by a positive, satisfying work
evironment
Continuance Commitment
• Awareness of the costs associated with leaving
the org.
– Other job alternatives
– Enhanced by the number and quality of benefits
• Retirement vesting
Normative Commitment
• Feeling obligated to the organization
– Influenced by socialization
• Psychological Contract
– Individual perception of terms of an implied
reciprocal exchange between individual and org.
• Enhanced by high levels of trust
Job Involvement
• The degree to which one is preoccupied with
and engaged in their job
• Caused largely by intrinsic motivation
• Related to satisfaction, commitment, turnover,
and performance
Job Satisfaction
• How much someone likes their job.
• Caused by:
– Need fulfillment
– Discrepancies
– Value Attainment
– Equity
– Disposition
Consequences of Job Satisfaction
• Motivation
• Job Involvement
• Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
– Voluntary
– Helps Org. performance
• Absenteeism
• Withdrawal Cognitions
Consequences of Job Satisfaction
(continued)
• Turnover
– Separation costs
– Replacement costs
• Stress
• Job Performance
Counterproductive Work Behaviors
(CWB)
• Abuse from supervisors results in
– Fewer OCBs
– Retaliation (sabotage)
– Violence
• Causes of CWB:
– Certain personality traits
– Job conditions
– Amount of autonomy & power
– Cognitive ability

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