World Religions

Report
World Religions
ACE Camp 2014 at Lincoln College
Taught by Mike Sorice
Introduction – About Me
Michael Angelo Sorice
Live in Urbana; from Forest Park (west side of Chicago)
Played at Fenwick & Illinois
Coach at Champaign Centennial High School
ACF & PACE member
NAQT writer
First time teaching at ACE
About to read the 2006 PACE NSC All-Star Game
Class Topic – World Religions
 4/5ths non-Judeo-Christian religions & topics
 1/5th modern religions (since ~1500)
 ~half of questions from these areas
 Won’t cover
 Judaism
 Mainstream Christianity
 The Bible
 These are good topics that come up, so learn about
them, too… elsewhere! (Not a comment on preferred
religion – have no personal preference!)
ANSWER 0: typical slide
 Easiest/most basic information first
 Harder/more abstruse information later
 Clues almost all from actual questions
 Buzz words underlined
 Important, but learn the context, too!
 Sometimes information left out because it appears in a
later slide
 I’ll try to point out– leave yourself space in your notes to fill in
World Religions: Part 1
Ancient Religions of India and East Asia
ANSWER 1: Hinduism
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Main religion of India
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Many gods & goddesses
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Scriptures (holy books)
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Brahma the Creator, part of the Trimurti (Trinity)
Yama (death,) Agni (fire,) Surya (sun,) Chandra (moon) & many others
Upanishads (“Sitting Near”)
Mahabharata (Epic of the Children of Bharata) & Ramayana (Epic of Rama)
Puranas (hymns to the gods)
Four goals in life
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Artha (wealth & skill)
Dharma (moral living)
Kama (pleasure)
Moksha (ultimate release)
ANSWER 2: The Vedas
 Main & oldest Hindu scriptures
 1500-1000 BCE
 Four in number (oldest to newest)
 Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda
 Written in Sanskrit
 Upanishads are mainly commentaries on them
 Vedanta is the school of philosophy of interpreting them
 Masters of the Vedas are called Pandits
 Our word pundit comes from that
ANSWER 3: Vishnu
 “The Preserver” - one of the three main Hindu gods
 In the Trimurti (Trinity) along with Brahma
 Wife (consort) is Lakshmi (a.k.a. Sri or Maya,) goddess of wealth
 Ten avatars (earthly manifestations)
 Matsya the Fish; Kurma the Turtle; Varaha the Boar; Narashima the LionMan; Vamana the Dwarf; Parashurama the Axe-Man; Lord Rama;
Krishna; and Kalki, who has not yet come
 Depicted riding on the eagle Garuda, the Bird King
 Carries a conch shell, chakra (discus,) mace, and lotus in his four
hands
ANSWER 4: Shiva
 “The Destroyer/Redeemer” – one of the three main Hindu
gods
 Makes up the Trimurti along with Brahma and Vishnu
 Takes the form of Nataraja, the Eternal Dancer
 Husband of Parvati, a.k.a. Durga or Kali, goddess of death
 Father of Kartikeya and Ganesha
 Ganesha has an elephant’s head because Shiva knocked
his head off!
 Rides the bull Nandi
 Also called Rudra (in the Vedas) and Mahadeva
ANSWER 5: Indra
 Hindu god of war and storms
 Main god in the Vedas, but not later Hinduism
 Killed the demon Vritra who was stealing all the world’s
water
 According to the Rig Veda
 Lives on Mount Meru in the hall of Svarga
 Rides an elephant named Airavata
ANSWER 6: Diwali
 The Hindu Festival of Lights
 5 days long
 Lamps & candles (called diyas) & fireworks are lit
 Celebrates Rama (Vishnu) defeating of the demon Ravana
to rescue his wife, Sita (Lakshmi)
 Especially sacred to Lakshmi, goddess of wealth, who is offered
sweets (mithai) to ensure a prosperous year
 Celebrates the home & family
 House is cleaned on first day (Dhanteras)
 Between husband & wife (Padva)
 Between sister & brother (Bahu-beej)
ANSWER 7: Holi
 Hindu Festival of Colors
 Believers throw colored powder on each other
 Celebrates love – of Krishna (Vishnu) for Radha (Lakshmi)
 Radha is one of the gopis, girls whom Krishna loved to frolic with
 A bonfire the night before commemorates the burning of
Holika, a demoness
 She was trying to kill Prince Prahlada
 Celebrates the defeat of the seemingly invulnerable demon
king Hiranyakashipu, who demanded to be worshipped
 Vishnu (as the Lion-Man Narashima) slew him for Prince
Prahlada, a devotee of Vishnu
ANSWER 8: Bhagavad Gita
 Part of the 6th book of the epic poem Mahabharata
 The advice of Krishna (Vishnu,) who is serving as
charioteer to the hero, King Arjuna
 Arjuna is wavering because he’s in a bloody war with his
own relatives. Krishna explains that duty and destiny
(dharma) trump even family ties
 Each of 18 chapters describes one yoga (discipline)
 Bhakti yoga, or devotion to the gods, is paramount
 Takes place during the Battle of Kurukshetra
ANSWER 9: the castes
 Hinduism divides people in to rigid classes, called castes (or varnas)
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Brahmins – priests and scholars
Kshatriyas – warriors and earthly kings
Vaishyas – merchants, farmers, and makers of things
Shudras – laborers
 People outside the varnas are Dalits (or untouchables)
 Vishnu’s avatar Parashurama hates the Kshatriyas
 He killed every Kshatriya 21 times with his axe!
 Described in the Laws of Manu (Manusmriti)
 Manu is the first human being in Hinduism
ANSWER 10: Buddhism
 Basic scriptures are the Tripitaka, a.k.a. Three Baskets or
Pali Canon
 Spread by Ashoka, emperor of India, in the 300’s B.C.E.
 Various sects contain many schools
 Theravada (sometimes called Hinayana) is the older, most
orthodox sect
 Temples are known as stupas
 Each stupa should contain a relic of the Buddha, like a hair
or tooth
ANSWER 11: Buddha
 A prince of Shakya named Siddhartha Gautama
 Buddha is a title meaning “Awakened One”
 Some forms of Buddhism use Buddha only to refer to the
Buddha; others use it to refer to many different Buddhas
 Meditated under the Bodhi tree to realize Four Noble Truths
 Existence is suffering (dukka), and how to deal with it: the
Eightfold Way
 Expounded his ideas in the Deer Park Sermon
 His mother, Queen Maya, had a vision of a white elephant
with 6 tusks before giving birth
 9th avatar of Vishnu
ANSWER 12: reincarnation (samsara)
 Central concept in Buddhism & Hinduism (et al.)
 Good karma, gained by following dharma, determines
the soul’s next life
 Also called metempsychosis or transmigration of souls
 The soul (jiva or atman) takes a new form based on its
actions in this life (or maybe not!)
 Quasi-eternal cycle of birth, death and reincarnation is
called samsara
ANSWER 13: nirvana (moksha)
 “Enlightenment” and escape from the cycle of samsara
 Technically, nirvana is the bliss resulting from moksha, the
escape from rebirth, but they’re used interchangeably
 People who have achieved this are called arhats; those
who put it off to help others are called bodhisattvas
 Different schools have different ideas which is better
 Means “extinguishing (of a candle)” (probably)
 Four stages
 Sotapanna (Wader,) Sakadagami (Once-Returner,) Anagami
(Non-Returner,) Arhat (Perfect)
ANSWER 14: Mahayana
 Largest sect of Buddhism
 Name means “Greater Vehicle”
 Supposed to enlighten many people at once through group practice, as
opposed to individual enlightenment through individual meditation
 Venerates bodhisattvas
 Saints who have achieved nirvana, but remained in the world to help
others do so as well
 Many sub-schools
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Pure Land
Nichiren
Tendai
Tibetan/Tantric/Vajrayana (sort-of)
ANSWER 15: Zen
 Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism
 Derived from Chinese Chan Buddhism
 Sub-sects include Rinzai and Soto, founded by Dogen
 Meditative practice called zazen
 To achieve satori, temporary enlightenment
 Paradoxical riddles called koans subdue the mind
 Blue Cliff Record and Gateless Gate, collections of koans
 Founded by Bodhidarma, an Indian monk
ANSWER 16: sutras
 Buddhist (and Hindu, etc.) aphoristic scriptures
 Many thousands of different books
 Buddhist ones contain sayings of the Buddha
 They form the first “basket” of the Tripitaka
 Name means “sewn (together)”
 Mahayana Buddhist schools often based on one
 Diamond Sutra: Vajrayana
 Platform Sutra: Zen
 Lotus Sutra: Tendai
 World’s oldest printed book: 9th-C. copy of Diamond Sutra
ANSWER 17: Jainism
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Indian religion centered on ahimsa (non-violence)
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Leaders/founders are the 24 Tirthankaras (“Ford-Makers”)
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The Universe is eternal, uncreated & subject to laws, as are the gods.
Only the last two are historical; the 23rd, Parsva, lived ~900 B.C.E.
Two major sects, differ on who can be clergy, who can achieve nirvana, and
what monks should wear
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Digambara (“Sky-Clad”) – Male-only, naked
Svetambara (“White-Clad”) – Men and women, robed
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Major scriptures are the Agamas (Agamasutra)
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Paryushana/Das Lakshana is major holiday (along w/ Diwali)
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8-day festival – gods (devas) celebrate Tirtankaras
Believers fast and dedicate themselves to study
ANSWER 18: Mahavira
 24th (last) Jain Tirthankara & central figure of Jainism
 Lived ~500 B.C.E.
 Symbolized by the lion
 Each Tirthankara has a symbolic animal
 Originally named Prince Vardhamana
 Mahavira is a title meaning “Great Warrior”
 Preached Five Laws of Trust
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Ahimsa, or Non-Violence
Satya, or Truthfulness
Asteya, or Non-Theft
Bramhacharya, or Chastity
Aparigraha, or Renunciation of the World
ANSWER 19: Sikhism
 Indian (mainly Punjabi) monotheistic religion
 Founded by Nanak c. 1500 C.E.
 Centered on the Golden Temple of Amritsar
 Scripture is called the Granth (or Adi Grath)
 Sikhs practice the Five K’s
 Kesh, non-cutting of hair
 Sikhs usually wear a turban to hold their long hair
 Kangha, carrying a small wooden comb
 Kara, wearing an iron bracelet
 Kacchera, wearing a particular undergarment
 Kirpan, carrying a dagger
 Sikhs may be baptized in holy water (Amrit) to join the Khalsa
ANSWER 20: Gurus
 The Gurus are the leaders of Sikhism
 Nanak (“Light,”) founder of Sikhism; Angad; Amar Das; Ram
Das; Arjun; Har Gobind; Har Rai; Har Krishan; Tegh Bahadur;
and Gobind Singh
 The 11th Guru is eternal: it’s the Sikh scripture, the Granth
 Called Guru Granth Sahib in this context
 In the same fashion, the Khalsa is sometimes also
considered a Guru
 Called Guru Panth (“Embodied Guru”)
ANSWER 21: Shintoism
 Japanese native animism (worship of nature spirits)
 Gods/spirits known as kami
 Shinto also called kami-no-michi (“Way of the Kami”)
 Major kami
 Susanoo, god of sea and storm
 Izanami (1st woman) and Izanagi (1st man,) made the world
 Shrines have gates called torii and maidens called miko
 Myth collection called the Kojiki (“Ancient Record”)
ANSWER 22: Amaterasu
 Sun goddess and chief kami of Shinto
 Name means “Heaven Shiner”
 Ancestor of the emperors of Japan
 She gave them her sacred mirror, jewel, and sword
 Sword is named Kusanagi, or “Grass Cutter”
 Born from the left eye of Izanagi
 After he washed it following a visit to the underworld, Yomi
 Chief shrine is at Ise is razed and rebuilt every 20 years
ANSWER 23: Confucianism
 Chinese philosophy/religion founded in the 6th C. B.C.E.
 Four Books (Si Shu) are its scriptures
 Analects – life and sayings of Confucius
 Mencius – dialogues of namesake scholar
 Ethical principles are the Wuchang (“Five Eternals”)
 Ren, “Humaneness;” Yi, “Justice;” Li, “Piety;” Zhi, “Knowledge;”
Xin, “Integrity”
 Also “Four Virtues” (Sizi)
 Zhong, “Loyalty;” Xiao, “Respect for Ancestors;” Jie,
“Continence;” Yi, “Justice”
ANSWER 24: Confucius
 Philosopher born in Lu state during the Chinese Spring
and Autumn period, c. 550 B.C.E.
 Believed to have written or edited the Five Classics
 I Ching, Book of Songs, Book of History, Book of Rites, and
Spring and Autumn Annals
 Central idea: Rectification of Names
 Words must correspond to reality, or nothing can succeed
 72 disciples
 Ziyuan, Zilu, Zichang, Zigong, etc.
ANSWER 25: Taoism (Daoism)
 Chinese philosophical religion centered on the Tao
(“Way”) and founded c. 500 B.C.E.
 Central idea is Wu Wei (“Non-Action,”)
 Representing harmony with nature’s opposites, yin and yang
 Differing pantheons of gods
 Jade Emperor
 Three Pure Ones
 Pangu, god of creation
 Zuganzi (or Zhuang Zhou) is a major Taoist thinker
ANSWER 26: Laozi (Lao-tzu)
 Central figure of Taoism
 Name is a title meaning “Old Master”
 Real name may have been Li Er
 Author of Tao To Ching, central text of Taoism
 “The Tao that can be spoken of is not the Tao”
 “Spokes join to form a wheel, but the central hole moves the
wagon”
 Legendarily fathered by a star and gestated for 62 years
 Deified as Taisahng Laojun (“Supreme Old Master”)
 Head of the Three Pure Ones
End of Part 1
World Religions: Part 2
Ancient Religions of the Near East
ANSWER 27: Zoroastrianism
 Dualistic (world divided into good & evil) religion of Persia
 Chief good god Ahura Mazda; evil, Angra Mainyu/Ahriman
 Also called Mazdaism for that reason
 Still exists among Parsis of India & Iran
 Leave the dead exposed in Towers of Silence to be eaten by vultures
 Human flesh is bad and would pollute the world
 Worship in Fire Temples (Dar-e-Mehr)
 New Years’ Festival Nowruz near Spring equinox
 Stories of an evil dragon named Azi-Dahaka
 Chained up by the hero Fredon in the Alborz Mtns.
ANSWER 28: Zoroaster
 Founded Zoroastrianism c. 2000-500 B.C.E. (?!)
 Also called Zarathustra
 Wrote parts of the Avesta, the Zoroastrian holy book
 Specifically, the hymns called the Gathas and Yasna
 Saw life as a struggle between asa (truth) and druj (lies)
 Converted King Vistaspa to spread his religion
 Biography of him called the Spend Nask (lost)
ANSWER 29: Islam
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Centers of worship are called mosques or masjids
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Priests are known as imams
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Dietary code called Halal
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Creed is the shahada
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“God (Allah) is the only God and Muhammad is his messenger”
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Savior known as the Mahdi will signal end times
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Devout Muslims pray 5 times per day toward the qibla
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The direction to the holy city of Mecca
The misbaha is a rosary used to pray
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99 beads count the 99 Names of God
ANSWER 30: Muhammad
 Founder of Islam, which considers him the last messanger
 Thus called Seal of the Prophets
 Fled from Mecca to Medina in 662 C.E.
 The Hijra (or Hegira) is the start of the Muslim calendar (A.H.)
 Biography & sayings (sunnah) are collected in the Hadith
 First prophetic vision in the cave of Hira in 610 C.E.
 Member of the Banu Hashim, a branch of the Quraysh
tribe of Arabia
ANSWER 31: Koran (Quran)
 Holy book of Islam – name means “Recitation”
 Revealed (wahy) to Muhammad by Angel Gabriel (Jibril)
 Text perfect & co-eternal with God
 Chapters are called Suras
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“The Cow” (Baqara)
“The Night Journey” (Isra)
“The Cave” (Kahf)
“Romans” (Rum)
 Verses called ayahs; Arabic recitation called tajwid
 A hafez is someone who can recite the whole from memory
ANSWER 32: Shiism (Shia Islam)
 Smaller of two major sects of Islam (majority in Iran & Iraq)
 Believe Muhammad’s son-in-law, Imam Ali, was proper 1st
Caliph (successor of Muhammad)
 Lost the First Fitna (Islamic Civil War) over this issue
 Supreme leaders called Imams
 Sub-sects based on #: Twelver, Sevener/Ismaili & Fiver/Zaidi
 Twelvers believe 12th Imam (Mahdi) on Earth in Occultation
 Important holiday of Ashura
 Commemorating death of Imam Hussein (son of Ali) at Karbala
ANSWER 33: Sunniism (Sunni Islam)
 Larger of two major sects of Islam (larger than Shiism)
 Believe Abu Bakr was proper 1st Caliph & that the body of
Muslims should choose the leader
 Won the First Fitna (Islamic Civil War) over this issue
 Consider the first 4 Caliphs Rashidun (“Rightly Guided”)
 Name means “Traditionalists” (from Sunnah, the traditions
of Muhammad’s life)
ANSWER 34: Sufism
 The mystical tradition within Islam
 Possibly named for their simple woolen clothes
 “Whirling Dervishes” are Sufis who worship by spinning
 The poet Rumi founded an order of Sufis
 Orders of Sufis are called turuqs
 Alevi
 Mevlevi
 Chishti
ANSWER 35: the Five Pillars
 The basic practices of Islam
 Recite the Shahada (creed)
 Pray 5 times each day (Salat)
 Give alms to the poor (Zakat)
 2.5% of ones wealth is to be donated
 Fast during the month of Ramadan (Sawm)
 Make a pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
 Delineated in the Hadith of Gabriel
 Known in Arabic as the arkan al-din
ANSWER 36: Hajj (Haj/Hadj)
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Pilgrimage to Mecca
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All able-bodied Muslims must go at least once (it’s a Pillar!)
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Commemorates the lives of Abraham (Ibrahim) and Hagar (Hajar)
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Central rite: circling (Tawaf) the Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram (“Forbidden Mosque”)
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Many other rituals
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Some believe the Black Stone of the Kaaba absorbs Hajjis’ sins
Visiting the Well of Zam Zam
Running (Sayi) between the hills of Safa and Marwah
Throwing stones at pillars representing Satan (“Stoning the Devil”/Ramy al-Jamarat)
Happens during final month of the Islamic calendar
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Dhu al-Hijjah (“Hajj Month”)
Ends with the feast holiday Eid al-Adha
ANSWER 37: Ramadan
 Able-bodied Muslim practice sawm (fasting from sunrise to sunset)
 One of the Pillars
 9th month of the Muslim calendar, name means “Hot/Dry”
 Commemorates the Hijra
 Determined by sightings of the crescent moon over sunset
 Ends with the feast holiday Eid al-Fitr
 Fast is broken with a meal called iftar & begun after a dawn meal
called suhor
 Extra night prayers called tarawih are said
 Contains the holiday Laylat al-Qadr (“Night of Power”)
ANSWER 38: Druze
 Egyptian (now Lebanese/Syrian )offshoot of Ismaili (Sevener) Shia Islam
 Begun in the 11th C. C.E.
 Have reserved political positions in Lebanon
 Revere al-Hakim, a Fatimid Caliph
 May believe he was manifestation of god
 Represented by a five-pointed, multicolored star
 Practice taqiya, the hiding of their faith from outsiders
 Named for Muhammad ad-Darazi
 Though they consider him a heretic
 Founded by Hamza ibn Ali
End of Part 2
World Religions: Part 3
Modern & New World Religions
ANSWER 39: Voodoo
 Afro-French syncretic offshoot of Catholicism
 Uses Fon, Ewe, Bakongo & Yoruba practices
 Believe in spirits called loas
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Bondye (“Good God” – chief deity)
Papa Legba
Shango
Baron Samedi
 Priests known as houngans & priestesses mambos
 Worship places called Sosyetes or Hounfours
ANSWER 40: Santeria
 Afro-Spanish syncretic offshoot of Catholicism
 Mainly uses Yoruban traditions, including chief god Olurun
 Name means “Way of the Saints”
 Gods syncretized/disguised as Catholic saints
 Also called Regla de Ocha or Lucumi
 Lucumi is also the name of the language of worship
 Deities/saints known as Orishas (or Orichas)
 Divination ceremony known as Ifa
 Temples called Iles (or Casas de Santos)
ANSWER 41: Quakers
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17th C. English offshoot of Christianity
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Also called Religious Society of Friends
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Name may come from tremors of ecstatic worshippers (or fear at persecution)
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Founded by George Fox
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Established in America by William Penn in Pennsylvania
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Worship in Meeting Houses
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Believe in the Inner Light
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Force of god may inspire anyone at any time, so no clergy
First members called the Valiant Sixty
ANSWER 42: Shakers
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18th C. Anglo-American Christian sect
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Began as offshoot of Quakers
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Wrote the hymn “Simple Gifts” (basis for Appalachian Spring)
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Founded towns in America like New Lebanon, NY
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Most prominent leader was “Mother” Ann Lee
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Believed to be a second coming of Christ
Other leaders: James Whittaker, Lucy Wright & Joseph Meacham
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Formally called United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing
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Believe in strict celibacy
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Communities tend to die out – only one left (Sabbath Day Lake Village, Maine)
ANSWER 43: Mormonism (Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)
 American offshoot of Christianity founded c. 1820 in NY
 Followers fled to Deseret (Utah) after being persecution &
infighting in Ohio, Illinois & Missouri
 Issues persisted until the Utah War of 1857-58, a.k.a. “Buchanan’s
Blunder”
 Mountain Meadows Massacre
 Believe Tribes of Israel became American Indians
 Nephites & Lamanites
 Scriptures include Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants
& The Pearl of Great Price
 Latter two are additions to the King James version of the Bible
ANSWER 44: Book of Mormon
 Central scripture unique to Mormonism (it uses the Bible as well)
 Believed to have been translated from Golden Plates written in
Reformed Egyptian
 Found in the Hill of Cumorah
 Translated using “seer stones” called Urim and Thummim
 Components Books: Plates/Books of Nephi, Book of Jarom, Book of
Omni, Words of Mormon, Book of Mosiah, Book of Ether
 Attested by the Testimony of the Three Witnesses and Testimony of
the Eight Witnesses
 They appear at the start of most editions
ANSWER 45: Joseph Smith, Jr.
 Founder of Mormonism & author of the Book of Mormon
 Visited by the angel Moroni in 1823
 Clued in to the existence of the Golden Plates
 Moved to Kirtland, Ohio, then Independence, Missouri,
then Nauvoo, Illinois (which he founded)
 Worked with Oliver Cowdery, his scribe
 Killed by a mob in jail in Carthage, Illinois in 1844
 Jailed after his followers destroyed the printing press of a
sect who disagreed with “plural marriage”
ANSWER 46: Bahaism
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19th C. syncretic offshoot of Shia Islam
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All religions fundamentally worship the same god
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All people are one and all religions valid
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Use practices & scriptures from other religions
Founded by Bahaullah, nee Mirza Hysayn Ali Nuri
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Bahaullah and most early Bahais had been Babis
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Babis were followers of the Bab (“Gate,”) a (slightly) earlier preacher from Persia
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Believes religious founders were Manifestations of God

Calendar of 19 months of 19 days (plus 4 or 5 intercalary)

Symbolized by 9-point star

Basic texts by Bahaullah: Book of Laws (Kitab-i-Aqdas) & Book of Certitude (Kitab-i-Iqan)
ANSWER 47: Jehovah’s Witnesses
 American Christian sect founded c. 1870 by Charles Taze
Russell
 Publishes a newsletter called The Watchtower
 Refuse blood transfusion or donation
 Worship in Kingdom Halls
 Grew out of the Movement of Bible Students
 Believe that exactly 144,000 people go to Heaven
 Believe that end times began October 1, 1914
ANSWER 48: Christian Science
 American Christian sect founded 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy
 After recovering from a slip & fall in Lynn, MA, 1866
 Refuse most medical treatment, preferring to trust in the
power of prayer
 Worship in Churches of Christ, Scientist
 Central text: Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures
(by Eddy)
 Also Manual of the Mother Church
 Christian Science Mother Church built in Boston, 1894
ANSWER 49: Rastafarianism

Jamaican offshoot of Ethiopic Christianity founded c. 1930


Revere Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I (Ras Tafari)
Also integrate pan-African/back-to-Africa ideologies
 Consider Marcus Garvey a saint/prophet

Call god Jah (short form of Jehovah)

Dietary code called I-tal

Sacred text Holy Piby

Holiday Grounation Day (Haile Selassie 1966 visit to Jamaica)


Sometimes erroneously “Groundation” in questions
Sects known as Mansions

Bobo Ashanti, Nyabinghi, 12 Tribes of Israel
ANSWER 50: Nation of Islam
 Black nationalist American sect founded c. 1930
 Most members converted to orthodox Sunni Islam 1976; the
current group is a revival created 1977
 Led by Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammad & Louis Farrakhan
 Founder Wallace Fard Muhammad
 Believed to be god (Allah) incarnate
 Believe in giant flying saucers called Mother Planes
 Believe white people are devils resulting from “grafting” by
scientist Yakub
End of Part 3

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