Chapter 6

Report
Business & Society
Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder
Management
Eighth Edition
Archie B. Carroll
Ann K. Buchholtz
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
1
Chapter 6
Issues and
Crisis
Management
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
2
Learning Outcomes
1. Distinguish between the conventional and strategic
approaches to issues management.
2. Identify and briefly explain the stages in the issues
management process.
3. Describe the major components in the issues
development process and factors in actual practice.
4. Define a crisis and identify the four crisis stages.
5. List and discuss the major stages or steps involved in
managing business crises.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
3
Chapter Outline
• The Relationship Between Issues Management
and Crisis Management
• Issues Management
• Crisis Management
• Summary
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
4
Issues Management and Crisis
Management
• The business environment is turbulent and
stakeholders are sensitive to emerging
issues.
• Some firms have not thought seriously
about public policy and ethical issues.
• Can be impossible to separate the two– the
“Siamese twins of public relations.”
• Well-conducted issues management can
help avoid crises.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
5
Issues Management
A process by which organizations identify
issues in the stakeholder environment, analyze
and prioritize those issues in terms of their
relevance to the organization, plan responses
to the issues, and then evaluate and monitor
the results.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
6
Issues Management: Conventional
Approach
Conventional Approach
• Narrowly focused.
• Issues fall within the domain of public policy
or public affairs management.
• Issues have a public policy/public affairs
orientation.
• Any trend, event, controversy, or public
development that might affect the corporation.
• Issues originate in social, political, regulatory,
or judicial environments.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
7
Issues Management: Strategic
Management Approach
Strategic Management Approach
• Broadly inclusive.
• Is typically the responsibility of senior line
management or strategic management staff.
• Issues identification is more important than
it is in the conventional approach.
• Issues management is seen as an approach
to the anticipation and management of
external/internal challenges to the company
strategies, plans, and assumptions.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
8
Strategic Issue Management
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
9
Issues
Issue
• A matter that is in dispute between parties.
• The dispute evokes debate, controversy, or
differences of opinion.
 The “portfolio approach” of issues
management helps firms to prioritize and
focus resources on the most important
issues.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
10
Emerging Issues
Characteristics of an emerging issue
 Terms of the debate are not clearly defined
 Issue deals with matters of conflicting
values and interest
 Automatic resolution is not available
 Issue is often stated in value-laden terms
 Trade-offs are inherent
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
11
Issues Management Process
Basic Assumptions
• Issues can be identified earlier, more completely,
and more reliably.
• Early anticipation:
• Widens the range of options.
• Permits study and understanding of the full range of
issues.
• Permits organization to develop a positive
orientation towards the issues.
• Organization will have earlier identification of the
stakeholders.
• Organization will be able to supply information to
influential publics earlier and more positively,
creating better understanding.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
12
Model of Issues Management Process
Identification of Issues
Analysis of Issues
Prioritization of Issues
Formulation of Issue Responses
Implementation of Issue Responses
Evaluation, Monitoring, and Control of Results
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
13
Identification of Issues
Scan the environment
Identify emerging issues and trends
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
14
Identification of Issues (continued)
Leading forces as predictors of social
change
• Events
• Authorities/advocates
• Literature
• Organizations
• Political jurisdictions
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
15
Identification of Issues (continued)
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
16
Issues Selling and Buying
Issues selling
•
Relates to middle managers exerting
upward influence in organizations as they
try to attract the attention of top
managers.
Issues buying
•
Top managers adopt a more open
mind-set for the issues that matter to their
subordinates.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
17
Analysis of Issues
•
•
•
•
•
Who (which stakeholder) is affected by the
issue?
Who has an interest in the issue?
Who is in a position to exert influence?
Who has expressed opinions on the issue?
Who ought to care about the issue?
To help with issue analysis:
•
•
•
Who started the ball rolling? (Historical view)
Who is now involved? (Contemporary view)
Who will get involved? (Future view)
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
18
Ranking or Prioritization of Issues
Two essential questions
1. How likely is the issue to affect the
organization?
2. How much impact will the issue have?
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
19
Other Issues: Ranking Techniques
Polls / Surveys
Expert panels
Content analysis
Delphi Technique
Trend extrapolation
Scenario building
Use of precursor events or bellwethers
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
20
Formulation and Implementation of
Response
Formulation
• The response design process.
Implementation
• The action design process.
 Plan clarity
 Resources needed
 Top management support
 Organizational structure
 Technical competence
 Timing
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
21
Evaluation, Monitoring, and
Control
• Companies should continually evaluate the
results of their responses to issues.
•
Includes careful monitoring of stakeholder
opinions.
 Information from this stage helps firms to
make adjustments to the process as needed.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
22
Issues Development Process
Issues Development Process
• The growth process or life cycle of an issue.
• Has five stages:
1. Early
2. Emerging
3. Current
4. Crisis
5. Dormant
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
23
Issues Development Life Cycle
Process
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
24
Issues Management in Practice
• Issues management covers a range of
public relations and management
activities.
• Companies that adopt issues
management processes:
 Develop better overall reputations
 Develop better issue-specific reputations
 Perform better financially
 Provides a bridge to crisis management.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
25
Crisis Management
To manage a crisis, one first must
understand that crises
 Occur abruptly
 Cannot always be anticipated
 May not occur within a specific issue
category
 Good issues management is a form of precrisis planning and can help stave off
crises.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
26
Crisis Management
We are in the era of the mega-crisis
• Enron, WorldCom, Arthur Andersen, Tyco,
and others accused of financial scandals
and malfeasance.
• Firestone and Ford were implicated in
massive tire recalls due to faulty tires.
• Bernie Madoff’s Ponzi scheme defrauded
thousands of investors out of billions of
dollars.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
27
The Nature of Crises
Crisis definitions
• An extreme event that may threaten your very
existence. At the very least, it causes substantial
injuries, deaths, and financial costs, as well as
serious damage to your reputation.
•
An organizational crisis is a low-probability, highimpact event that threatens the viability of the
organization and is characterized by ambiguity of
cause, effect, and means of resolution, as well as by
a belief that decisions must be made swiftly.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
28
Crisis Management
Rules of crisis management:
1. Don’t wait
2. Don’t run from the truth
3. Don’t hide
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
29
Types of Crises
Economic
Physical
Personnel
Criminal
Information
Reputational
Natural disasters
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
30
Outcomes of Major Crises
 Escalated in intensity
 Subjected to media and government
scrutiny
 Interfered with normal business operations
 Damaged the companies bottom line
 Resulted in major power shifts
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
31
Crisis Management: Four Stages
Prodromal Crisis Stage
Acute Crisis Stage
Warning—precursor
Symptom —precrisis
Point of no return
Crisis has occurred
Learning
Crisis Resolution Stage
Patient is well/
whole again
Chronic Crisis Stage
Lingering on—perhaps
indefinitely; period of selfdoubt; self-analysis
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
32
Managing Business Crises
Five practical steps in managing crises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Identifying areas of vulnerability
Developing a plan for dealing with threats
Forming crisis teams
Simulating crisis drills
Learning from experience
 Effective crisis management requires
tailoring a program to a firm’s industry.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
33
Ten Steps of Crisis
Communications
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Identify crisis communication team
Identify key spokespersons
Train your spokespersons
Establish communications protocols
Identify and know the audience
Anticipate crises
Assess the crisis situation
Identify key messages to communicate
Decide on communication methods
Be prepared to ride out the storm
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
34
Be First, Be Right, Be Credible
Be First
• Get the message out first to control
content and accuracy.
Be Right
• Say and do the right thing.
Be Credible
• Be open, honest, and speak with
one consistent voice.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
35
Successful Crisis Management
•
Being prepared for a crisis helps
companies get their acts together and
respond more quickly, with less damage.
•
Beung prepared for one type of crisis
provides valuable learning for when other
types of crises strike.
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
36
Key Terms
• Acute crisis stage
• Chronic crisis stage
• Conventional approach
to issues management
• Crisis
• Crisis communications
• Crisis management
• Crisis resolution stage
• Crisis teams
• Emerging issue
• Issue
• Issue selling and
buying
• Issues development
process
• Issues management
• Portfolio approach
• Prodromal crisis stage
• Strategic approach to
issues management
© 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
37

similar documents