Handwriting Instruction - Colonial School District Occupational

Report
Handwriting Instruction:
Key to the future
or
Subject of the Past
Tara Kulak OTR/L
OTD Program
Chatham University
Learning Objectives
Participants will:
• Gain knowledge about the importance of consistent
handwriting instruction.
• Gain knowledge about handwriting and the skills needed in
successful development of handwriting.
• Understand the role handwriting plays in acquisition of
further academic skills.
• Understand and compare the roles of the teacher and
occupational therapist in handwriting instruction.
• Review Handwriting Without Tears handwriting curriculum
and how it supports development of handwriting skills.
• Assess current knowledge of handwriting instruction and
new information gained from presentation.
Handwriting Facts
• Handwriting is an essential skill.
• 30-60% of academic day in elementary school
is spent on fine motor activities including
handwriting.
• 85 % of all fine motor time in 2nd,4th & 6th
grade classrooms was spent on paper and
pencil activities.
• 42% of kindergartner’s fine motor time is
spent on paper and pencil activities.
• 37% of preschool student’s day is spent on FM
activities with only 10% spent on
paper/pencil.
(McHale & Cermak, 1992) (Marr, Cermak, Cohn &
Henderson, 2003)
Handwriting Facts
• 10-30% of elementary school students struggle
with handwriting (Karlsdottir & Stephansson,
2002 as cited in Feder & Majnemer, 2007)
• Poor handwriting can lead to decreased academic
success and low self esteem (Feder & Majnemer,
2007)
• 98% of occupational therapy referrals in the
school are related to student difficulties with
handwriting. (Tait, 1998 as cited in Marr &
Dimeo, 2006)
Handwriting in the Classroom
• Teachers do not feel adequately prepared for
handwriting instruction in the classroom.
(Graham et al., 2008)
• Handwriting instruction in the classroom is often
overlooked to focus on other areas of the
curriculum (Cahill, 2009)
• Handwriting instruction in the classroom is
important for student success (Cahill, 2009; Daly
et al., 2003; Edwards, 2003; MacKay et al., 2010;
McHale & Cermak, 1992; Olsen, 2008; and
Schneck & Amundson, 2010)
Expectations and Skill
Acquisition of Handwriting
• Expectations of pre-k &
kindergarten students has
increased.
• Important for teachers to give
students opportunities to acquire
prerequisite skills for writing.
• Lack of automaticity will slow
down a student’s ability to
generate writings.
Role of Teacher and OT
• Teacher
• Facilitator of Daily Handwriting Instruction
• Expert in Student Performance
• Collaborator with OT if problems arise
• Occupational Therapist
•
•
•
Support to students in the classroom
Expert on skills needed for acquisition of handwriting
skills
Collaborator with Teacher
Overview of HWT
• Multi-sensory handwriting program
• Created by Jan Olsen, occupational therapist.
• HWT curriculum draws from years of research to provide developmentally
appropriate, multisensory tools ands strategies for the classrooms to
utilize (Lust & Donica, 2011; Marr & Dimeo, 2006; and Olsen, 2008)
•
“Handwriting Without Tears is suitable for children of all abilities and
learning styles,” and the incorporation of “manipulatives, instructional
exercises, and workbook format ensures success for all children” (Olsen,
2008, p. 6)
•
HWT “teaches the easiest skills first and then builds on what the children
have learned. Such instruction helps children develop good consistent
habits for size, letter formation, and letter placement. Thus, they will
master handwriting more quickly” (Olsen, 2008, p. 5).
• Explore website of Handwriting without Tears: www.hwtears.com
Handwriting in the Preschool
Classroom
• Get Set For School
• Informal readiness handwriting program
• Emphasizes readiness skills to prepare for formal handwriting
instruction.
• Helps get preschool students ready for kindergarten.
• Helps develop:
– Language proficiency
– Social skills
– Fine and gross motor control
– Color and shape awareness
– Letter & number recognition
– Counting
Essential Components
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Time Management
Building
Music, Circle Time and Fingerplays
Playing with Dough
Drawing & Painting
Color and Coloring
Get Set for School Workbook
Get Set for School Workbooks
• Large step-by-step models easy to teach and finger
trace
• Page design is lefty friendly with multiple models
• Black/white pages with left-to-right illustrations avoid
confusion
• Emphasizes developing those foundational skills
needed for formal handwriting instruction.
Mat Man & Wood Pieces
• Letter Building Kit- Wood Pieces
• Big lines
• Big curves
• Little lines
• Little curves
• Letter cards
• Blue mat
• Mat Man
•Teaches body awareness
• Develops counting skills
• Develops drawing skills
• Promotes social skills
Music, Circle Time & Fingerplays
• CD that incorporates concepts of preschool
program
• Helps engage children
• Unlocks language
• Provides motor component
Roll A Dough
• Helps develop small muscles in the
hands.
• Feel & see size and shape differences.
• Children enjoy playing with the dough.
Colors and Coloring
• Help recognize colors
• Naturally promote a good grip and
finger strength.
• Delight children and encourage
them to move their fingers to flip
the crayon to a new color.
Online Tools
• Link to access online toolshttp://www.hwtears.com/hwt/online-tools
– Digital Teaching Tools
– Screener of Handwriting Proficiency
– A+ Worksheet Maker Lite
– A Click Away- Expanded
– Video Library
– Classroom Downloads
– Online Seminars
Handwriting Web Sources & Videos
• Check Readiness Pre-writing and writing readiness
assessment:
• http://www.hwtears.com/files/prekassessment/Check_Readiness_Assessments_WB.pdf
• Check Readiness Classroom Observation Checklist:
• http://www.hwtears.com/files/prekassessment/Readiness_checklist_AK_Dec30.pdf
• Video using Wood Pieces:
•http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage
&v=lxE2b2lrBfQ
• Overview Video of Get Set for School
•http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage
&v=QsRUkNN_IWs
What have you learned?
• What percentage of time is taken up by fine motor
activities in the preschool classroom?
• True or False- Handwriting difficulties is the most
common reason for occupational therapy referral in
the school setting.
• How much time should be spent on handwriting
instruction in the classroom?
• Name 3 roles the teacher and occupational therapist
play in handwriting instruction.
• Who created the Handwriting Without Tears
curriculum?
• Name 3 types of media that can be used to teach the
readiness skills needed for formal handwriting
instruction using the Get Set for School Program.
Conclusion
• Handwriting is still an important aspect
of our lives.
• Studies support that handwriting practice
is beneficial to developing overall
handwriting skills.
• Handwriting practice can be supported
through daily practice in the classroom.
• Important to incorporate handwriting
into curriculum to allow for adequate
acquisition of handwriting skills.
• The key to success is building a strong
foundation through the use of a
readiness program
Survey
Handwriting Instruction PowerPoint Survey
After participating and at the completion of this presentation, please take a few
moments to complete this survey.
Using the following scale- 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Somewhat Disagree 3 = Do not
agree or disagree 4 = Somewhat Agree 5 = Strongly Agree
I have an increased understanding of the importance of
consistent handwriting instruction.
I have increased awareness of the roles of the teacher and
occupational therapist.
Handwriting instruction is important for student success
I have increased my knowledge of the Handwriting Without
Tears (HWT) curriculum.
I have increased my knowledge of the HWT preschool
curriculum.
I feel more confident in implementing handwriting instruction
in my preschool classroom.
I have increased my knowledge of the multi-sensory media
(wood pieces, stamp & see, etc.) used in the HWT curriculum.
I have a better understanding of my role in handwriting
instruction.
I have a better understanding of the role of the occupational
therapist.
I am more likely to incorporate consistent handwriting
instruction daily.
Please provide any additional comments:
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
References
Cahill, S.M. (2009). Where does handwriting fit in? : Strategies to support
academic achievement. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4), 223228.
Daly, C.J., Kelley, G.T., & Krauss, A. (2003). Relationship between visual-motor
integration and handwriting skills of children in kindergarten: A
modified replication study. The American Journal of Occupational
Therapy, 57(4), 459-462.
Edwards, L. (2003). Writing instruction in kindergarten: Examining an
emerging area of Research for children with writing and reading
difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(2), 136-148.
Feder, K.P., & Majnemer, A. (2007). Handwriting development, competency,
and intervention. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49,
312-317.
Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Mason, L., Fink-Chorzempa, B., Moran, S., & Saddler,
B. (2008). How do primary grade teachers teach handwriting? A
national survey. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal,
21, 49-69. doi: 10.1007/s11145-007-9064-z
References
Lust, C., & Donica, D. (2011). Effectiveness of a handwriting readiness
program in head start: A two-group controlled trial. The American
Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(5), 560-568.
Mackay, N., McCluskey, A., & Mayes, R. (2010). The log handwriting program
improved children’s writing legibility: A pretest-posttest study. The
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 30-36.
Marr, D., Cermack, S.A., Cohn, E.S., & Henderson, A. (2003). Fine motor
activities in head start and kindergarten classrooms. American
Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57, 550-557.
Marr, D., & Dimeo, S.B. (2006). Outcomes associated with a summer handwriting
course for elementary students. American Journal of Occupational
Therapy, 60 (1), 10-15.
McHale, K., & Cermak, S. (1992). Fine motor activities in elementary school:
Preliminary findings and provisional implications for children with fine
motor problems. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46, 898-903.
References
Olsen, J.Z. (2008). Handwriting Without Tears Research Review.
Handwriting Without Tears. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from
http://www.hwtears.com/hwt/why-it-works/research
Olsen, J.Z. & Knapton, E.F. (2008). Handwriting without tears: Pre-K
teacher’s guide. Cabin John, MD: Handwriting Without
Tears.
Roth, K. & Guinee, K. (2011). Ten minutes a day: The impact of
interactive writing instruction on first graders’ independent
writing. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 11(3), 331-361.
Schneck, C. & Amundson, S. (2010). Prewriting and handwriting skills.
In J. Case-Smith & J. C. O’Brien (Eds.), Occupational therapy
for children (6th—ed., pp. 555-580). Maryland Heights, MO:
Mosby Elsevier.

similar documents