COBOL

Report
COBOL
BY: JOSHUA THOMAS IGNATIUS TOWERS
Overview
 What is COBOL
 History
 Design
 Implementations
 What did it do
 Program structure
 Data types
 Syntax
 Sample
 Evaluation
What is COBOL
COmmon Business
Oriented Language
History
 Progenitor
 FLOW-MATIC primary
Implemented in 1957
 For use in UNIVAC


AIMACO


U.S. Air Force
COMTRAN

IBM
History
 Grace Hopper 1953
“Mathematical programs should be written in mathematical
notation, data processing programs should be written in English
statements” (Sebesta)
 First Prototype used English, French, and the
German
Design
 Designed in a Committee
 Committee
 The Department of Defense sponsored
Design
 Use as much English as possible
 Easy to use even at the expense of power
 Easy to read even for non programmers
 Should not be restricted by implementation
Implementations
 COBOL 60
 COBOL 74
 COBOL 85
 COBOL 2002
What Did It Do
 DEFINE
 First high level construct for macros
 Records
 First implemented in COBOL
 Long names with connector characters
 Data Description section
Program structure
 Hierarchy
 Divisions, Sections, Paragraphs, Sentences, and Statements
 Divisions
 Identification, Environment, Data, and Procedure
Data Types
 Numeric
 ‘S’, ‘V’, ‘9’
 Alphabetic
 ‘A’
 AlphaNumeric
 ‘X’, ‘S’, ‘V’, ‘9’, ‘A’
 Figurative Constants
 SPACE, ZERO
Syntax
 If
 Arithmetic

ADD, SUBTRACT, MULTIPLY, DIVIDE, COMPUTE
Syntax
 Evaluate
Syntax
 PREFORM
$ SET SOURCEFORMAT"FREE"
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. Iteration-If.
AUTHOR. Michael Coughlan.
Sample
DATA DIVISION.
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
01 Num1
PIC 9 VALUE ZEROS.
01 Num2
PIC 9 VALUE ZEROS.
01 Result
PIC 99 VALUE ZEROS.
01 Operator
PIC X VALUE SPACE.
PROCEDURE DIVISION.
Calculator.
PERFORM 3 TIMES
DISPLAY "Enter First Number : " WITH NO ADVANCING
ACCEPT Num1
DISPLAY "Enter Second Number : " WITH NO ADVANCING
ACCEPT Num2
DISPLAY "Enter operator (+ or *) : " WITH NO ADVANCING
ACCEPT Operator
IF Operator = "+" THEN
ADD Num1, Num2 GIVING Result
END-IF
IF Operator = "*" THEN
MULTIPLY Num1 BY Num2 GIVING Result
END-IF
DISPLAY "Result is = ", Result
END-PERFORM.
STOP RUN.
Sample Output
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. Conditions.
AUTHOR. Michael Coughlan.
* An example program demonstrating the use of
* condition names (level 88's).
* The EVALUATE and PERFORM verbs are also used.
Sample 2
DATA DIVISION.
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
01 Char
PIC X.
88 Vowel
VALUE "a", "e", "i", "o", "u".
88 Consonant
VALUE "b", "c", "d", "f", "g", "h"
"j" THRU "n", "p" THRU "t", "v" THRU "z".
88 Digit
VALUE "0" THRU "9".
88 ValidCharacter VALUE "a" THRU "z", "0" THRU "9".
PROCEDURE DIVISION.
Begin.
DISPLAY "Enter lower case character or digit. No data ends.".
ACCEPT Char.
PERFORM UNTIL NOT ValidCharacter
EVALUATE TRUE
WHEN Vowel DISPLAY "The letter " Char " is a vowel."
WHEN Consonant DISPLAY "The letter " Char " is a consonant."
WHEN Digit DISPLAY Char " is a digit."
WHEN OTHER DISPLAY "problems found"
END-EVALUATE
END-PERFORM
STOP RUN.
Evaluation
 Readability
 Write ability
 Reliability
 Cost
Sources
 Coughlan, Michael. Cobol Tutorial. March 1999. October 2011

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
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<http://www.csis.ul.ie/cobol/course/DataDeclaration.htm>.
Hodgson, Jonathan. Sample COBOL program. 7 February 2000.
<http://www.sju.edu/~jhodgson/cobol/sample.html>.
IBM. "Language Reference Version 3 Release 3." IBM, February 2004.
McCloskey, Robert. COBOL Subprograms.
<http://www.cs.uofs.edu/~mccloske/courses/cmps340/lecture_notes/cobol_subpr
ogs.html>.
Merant. Programmer's Guide to Writing Programs. 1999.
<http://supportline.microfocus.com/documentation/books/oc41books/prconc.htm
>.
Reimann, Artur. COBOL 2000. San Jose: Fujitsu Software Corporation, 1999.
—. "Object Oriented Programming in COBOL 2000." Fujitsu Software Corporation,
1999.
Sebesta, Robert W. Concept of Programming Languages. Boston: Pearson
Education, 2009.
Towers, William. Manager Data Storage Joshua Towers. November 2011.
Coughlan., M. (n.d.). COBOL Example Programs . Retrieved from Department of
CSIS: http://www.csis.ul.ie/cobol/examples/default.htm#Selection

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