Persuasive Writing - Hyperlinking in Federal Court

In the Federal Courts
What is hyperlinking?
The process of adding active
links to websites, or documents
stored on a website, to text.
Benefits of hyperlinking
Provides quick, easy, and pinpoint access to
particular sections of a case, or to specific filings in
the court’s record.
Allows judges and attorneys to quickly and
correctly access:
• the relevant evidence being cited without having to
navigate through the CM/ECF record; and
• the law being cited.
Allows judges and attorneys to quickly review text
written at their direction or under their supervision.
What links can or should be added?
Caveat: Check your local rules.
Generally permitted links:
• CM/ECF filings;
• Cited legal authorities; and
• Documents posted on the court website, (e.g., local
rules, general orders, taxable interest charts, etc).
Always provide the full and correct citation to the
document being cited.
Never link to webpages as evidence in support of a
motion unless citing to pages on the CM/ECF docket.
Adding hyperlinks – MS Word
Adding Hyperlinks -- WordPerfect
CM/ECF Filings
Links to documents previously filed of record.
4:12-cv-00230-JMG-CRZ Aurora Cooperative Elevator
Company v. Aventine Renewable Energy - Aurora West, LLC
See, e.g.
url addresses: CM/ECF filings
Manual method
See, e.g.
url addresses:
CM/ECF sub-filings
See, e.g.
url addresses: CM/ECF page numbers
Add ?page=<page number> to the url address
Address links for attachments and exhibits
to be filed with briefs and motions
See, e.g.
Coming Soon!!
CM/ECF LinkBuilder software is being
It will:
• be free for download by attorneys and court
users in every federal jurisdiction;
• search a document for all citations to CM/ECF;
• create a listing of those citations; and
• automatically add the hyperlinks to the
url addresses:
Manual linking to legal citations
Adding the url address for any case or legal authority
from Westlaw or Lexis.
url addresses:
Cases or rules posted
on a court website
Automated Linking to Legal Citations
Westlaw InsertLinks
• Current and up-to-date; and
• Very accurate.
• It is not free;
• It is not flawless; and
• It does not work with WordPerfect X6.
Automated Linking to Legal Citations
Shepard’s Links 2008
• Free
• It does not work with WordPerfect X4 – X6
• It does not work with Word 2007-2010
• It is not very reliable—particularly with newer
Automated Linking to Legal Citations
Lexis for Microsoft Office
• Current, up-to-date software
• It is not free;
• It does not work with WordPerfect; and
• Most importantly, the links it adds are not retained
upon conversion to PDF.
Saving to PDF
To retain active links:
Save to PDF or Publish to PDF using
your Word Processing program.
DO NOT convert using Print to PDF or
by copying and scanning the
Creating CM/ECF links—automated
Lange F & R docx Crouch M&O on SJ.docx
Creating Westlaw links—automated
Viewing a linked CM/ECF document
Lange v. Hoskins, et al, (Filing No. 79)
Crouch v. Brase Electrical, (Filing No. 27)
For more information:
From the Nebraska public website, download:
Attorney Guide to Hyperlinking in the Federal Courts
(Go to the Attorney tab Electronic Case Filing (ECF)
Written Procedures for Filing)

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