Female Genetalia

Kufa University
Veterinary Medicine College
Majid ,A .Talal
Fourth stag
Tim 2 hours
The Female Reproductive System )F.R.S)
The goal -the pupils must be know after
1-Defined the F.R.S.
2-The function of the F.R.S .
3-The parts of the F.R.S.
4-The function of the any part of F.R.S.
5-Department between the F.R.S. in cow
bitch.sow.,ewe ,mare
‫الجهاز التناسلي األنثوي هو الجهاز المسؤل عن االخصاب والحمل والوالدة في ‪‬‬
‫اإلناث يتكون من مبيض أيمن ومبيض أيسر( يكون األيمن أكثر نشاطا في االبقار‬
‫واأليسر أكثر نشاطا في الخيول) المسؤلة عن إنتاج البويضات و الهرمونات‬
‫الجنسية (االستروجين و‬
‫قناة البيض المسؤلة عن نقل البويضة من المبيض الى الرحم ونقل النطف من قرن ‪‬‬
‫الرحم الى المنطقة الوسطى من قناة البيض حيث يحدث االخصاب وتتكون من‬
‫ثالثة أجزاء(القمع قرب المبيض والحويصلة‬
‫‪ ‬الرحم وهو الجزء المسئول عن تغذية الجنين والحمل والوالدة وإنتاج وإفراز‬
‫هرمون )‪ )PGF2ά‬البروستوكالندين ويتكون من جسم الرحم والقرنين والعنق‬
‫وشكله يختلف من نوع حيوان ألخر(أفراس‪ ,‬أبقار‪ ,‬نعاج‪ ,‬كالب ‪,‬قطط ‪ ,‬خنازير) ‪.‬‬
Anatomy and physiology of
 the female G.S consist of
 1- ovaries.
 2-oviduct.
 3- uterus.
 4- vagina.
 5- vestibule.
 6- vulva.
the ovaries perform exocrine oogenesis 
and endocrine function steroidogenesis
in female, the ovaries varies in size
&shape according to spp. , estrous
cycle,age of female, breed and presence
or absence of pathological condition,
the structural &functional unit of the
ovary is the follicle
Internal structure and function
 In most domestic animals the ovaries
consist of a peripheral parenchymatous
zone(cortex) containing various stage of
follicular and luteal gland development
surrounding a central vascular zone
connective tissue rich in blood vessels.
*What's the main function of ovary
Uterine tube(oviduct)
They are tubular ,tortuous structure situated 
bw ovary and tip of uterine horn (utro-tubal
junction ).The oviduct derived from
mesonephric duct.The length of oviduct in
mare &cow 20-30 cm ,in ewes & doe 15-20
 cm ,in sow 15-30cm
 Why cannot palpated oviduct in
rectal palpation ?
The oviduct consist of 3parts joint together , 
the 1stinfundibulum adjacent the ovary , its
free end &it's usually have fimbria to pick up
ova ,the 2nd part is the larger part called
ampulla , site of fertilization especially in
ampulla isthmus junction ,3rd part is
shorter& narrow part called isthmus ,the
junction bw isthmus and tip of uterine horn
called utro-tubal junction or ostium uterine
*What's the main function of oviduct 
Bovine Uterus
*Bicornuate uterus with relatively long uterine
horn .
*coiled in shape like ram horn.
*the length of uterine horn in cow (20-25cm)
*the length of uterine body (4.5-5 cm).
. the endometrium have special structure called
What deferent between bov .uter &mare
Mare uterus
 Like T shape
 There are no carancles in mares.
 the endometrial surface is composed of
longitudinal folds
Ovine uterus
 Like in bevies but small in size and little in
number of carancles
Canine uterus
 Yin shape , Bipartate, Length of body 10-12
cm ,length of horn 12-15 cm situated in
abdominal cavity .
Swine uterus
 Intestinal in shape ,length of body 5 cm length of horn
40-100 cm
In all cases the caudal portion consist of 
cervical a thick walled segment with a
narrow lumen that act as
sphincterregulating the flow of maternal to
from the uterus.Situated bw the uterus
&posterior part of vagina which called the
vaginal part of uterus or portiovaginalis of
the cervix.
Bovine cervix
 8-10 length ,2-4 cm in diameter , the cervix
in bovine consider the guide to the female
gentilia by rectal palpation , because
presence of cervical rings 3-5 rings , it has
cartilaginous in consistency but there is no
cartilage, the cervix have longitudinal fold
interrupted by circular mucosal folds.
Mare (equine) cervix
 5-7.5 cm length , 2.5-5 cm diameter have
longitudinal folds .
Ovine cervix
 Similar to bovine but small , 4-6 cm in
length , 2-3 cm in diameter, 5-7 cervical
rings (anullar rings).
Canine cervix
 0.5-5 cm in length , 0.5-0.75 cm in diameter
has longitudinal folds
Swine cervix
 It has spiral lumen to fit the boars penis
The vagina
 It make up a major portion of anatomic
connection bw the uterus & external
environment .
 Extend from fornix to the external urethral
orifice & hymen
 Extend from vulval cleft to the hymen ,that
make up the vestibule-vaginal junction
&urethral orifice.It resample the terminal
part of genital tract and belonging to both
the urinary and genital sys
 The vestibule have minor &major glands
 The vulva is just caudal to the vestibule
&consist of two labia and clitoris.
 1-Arther, D . E . Nooks , ; Parkinson ,T. J . and England
,G .C. (2009) . Arthurs Vet . Reprod . And Obstetrics .
eight edition . W . B . Saunders . P p , 5-12-21-22 .
 2- Ball , P . J . H . and Peters , A . R . (2004) .
Reproduction in cattle , 3 rd edition , chapter
 3- Robert, H. and Walter ,A . (2004). Large Animal
Theriogenology the main book
 4- Peters , A . R . and Ball , P . J . H . (1994) .
Reproduction in Cattle , 2ndedn . Black well Science ,
Thank your for listen

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