CHAPTER 7 MEMORY - Wayne County Public Schools

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PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
Chapter 7
MEMORY
Section 1: Three Kinds of Memory
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
Section 3: Three Stages of Memory
Section 4: Forgetting and Memory Improvement
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Chapter 7
Section 1: Three Kinds of Memory
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
What is Memory?
 Memory is the process by which we recollect
prior experiences and information and skills
learned in the past.
 One way to classify memory is according to
the different kinds of information it contains:
events, general knowledge, and skills.
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Chapter 7
Section 1: Three Kinds of Memory
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Question: What are the three kinds of memory?
THREE KINDS OF MEMORY
 Episodic memory – memory of a specific event that
took place in the person’s presence or through
experience
 Semantic memory – general knowledge that people
remember
 Implicit memory – a memory that consists of the
skills and procedures one has learned
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Section 1: Three Kinds of Memory
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Episodic Memory
 Episodic Memory is memory of a specific event
 Flashbulb memories--Events so important that it seems as
if a flashbulb goes off and we photograph it in every
detail.
 There are several reasons why certain memories become
etched in our minds when the “flashbulb” goes off.
 Sometimes places or events make an impression on us
because they are connected to other events that are
important at the time, such as a major disaster or tragedy.
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Section 1: Three Kinds of Memory
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Semantic Memory
 Semantic memory – general knowledge that people
remember
 We usually do not remember when we acquired the
information in our semantic memory.
 Examples of semantic memory
 You remember the alphabet, you so not remember where,
when or how you learned it.
 Most of what you have learned in your classes at school has
become part of your semantic memory.
 Episodic and semantic memories are both examples of
explicit memory.
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Section 1: Three Kinds of Memory
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Implicit Memory
 The opposite of explicit is implicit and another kind
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of memory is implicit memory
Implicit memory – a memory that consists of the
skills and procedures one has learned
Things that are implicit are implied or not clearly
stated
Memories consist of the skills or procedures you have
learned—throwing a ball, jumping rope, typing, using
a computer, playing a musical instrument.
Once skills have been learned, they tend to stay
remembered for many years perhaps even a lifetime.
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Chapter 7
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Homework Practice Online
 Go to http://go.hrw.com
 Type in sy7 ch7
 Complete section 1
 Print
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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Question: What are the three processes of memory?
THREE PROCESSES OF MEMORY
 Encoding – the translation of information into a form
in which it can be stored
 Storage – the second process of memory and is the
maintenance of encoded information over a period of
time
 Retrieval – third process of memory; consists of
locating stored information and returning it to
conscious thought
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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Encoding
 The first stage of processing information
 When we place information into our memory like
computers, we encode it.
 We convert the physical stimulation we have received
into psychological formats that can be mentally
represented.
 On a sheet of paper write this list of letters
OTTFFSSENT
 Look at the letters for 30 seconds and memorize as
much of the list as possible.
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Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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 Visual codes
 Did you try to see them in your mind as a
picture?
 If so, you used visual code.
 You tried to form a mental picture of the letters
in your mind.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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 Acoustic Codes—
 Did you read the list to yourself and repeat it
several times?
 You may have said the letters one after another
trying to remember the letters
 The acoustic code records the letter in your
memory as a sequence of sounds.
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 Semantic codes
 Did you try to make sense of the letters, or try to figure out
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what they mean?
A semantic code represents information in terms of its
meaning.
You may have tried to find words that begin with each letter in
the list.
What you may not have realized when you first examined the
list is that the letters OTTFFSSENT
Stands for the first letter of the series of numbers from one to
ten
By using semantic codes, you can memorize lists of letters and
other items more easily and will probably remember them for
a longer amount of time than you would otherwise.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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Storage
 Once information is encoded it must be stored
 This is the second stage in the memory process.
 Human storage of information is not all that different
from a computer’s storage of information.
 With a computer, the user must instruct the machine
to save information in its memory.
 Otherwise it will lose the newly encoded information
when the user shuts off the computer.
 People who want to store new information in their
memory use a variety of strategies.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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 Maintenance Rehearsal—repeating information over
and over again to keep from forgetting.
 The more time spent in rehearsing or repeating
information the longer the information will be
remembered.
 Maintenance rehearsal does not try to make
information meaningful by connecting it to past
learning, it is a relatively poor way to put information
in permanent storage.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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Elaborative Rehearsal
 Elaborative Rehearsal—A more effective and
lasting way to remember new information is to
make it meaningful by relating it to
information you already know well
 Widely used in education because it has
proved to be a much more effective method
than maintenance rehearsal.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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Organizational Systems
 Memories that you store become organized and
arranged in your mind for future use.
 Your memory resembles a vast storehouse of files and
file cabinets in which you store what you learn and
need to remember.
 The more you learn, the more files you need and the
more elaborate your filing system becomes.
 As your memory develops, it organizes the
information you learn into files and then files within
files.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
Filing Errors
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 Our ability to remember information even
when we are healthy and functioning well is
subject to error.
 Some memory errors occur because we “file”
information incorrectly.
 Have you ever mistakenly placed a paper in
the wrong folder?
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Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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Retrieval
 The third stage of the memory process
 Retrieval consists of locating stored information and returning
it to conscious thought.
 To retrieve information stored in a computer we have to know
the name of the file and the rules for retrieving information.
 Some information in our memory is so familiar that it is
readily available and almost impossible to forget.
 Using the semantic code may be more complex than seeing the
list in your mind’s eye and it might take you a little longer to
reconstruct the list of letters. However, by using the 1-10
device, you have a much better chance of remembering the
letters and of remembering them for a longer time.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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Context-Dependent Memory
 Have you ever been to a place that brought back old
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memories?
The memories that came back to you in that place are called
context-dependent memories .
These memories are dependent on the place where they were
encoded and stored.
Students do better on tests when they study for a test in the
room where the test will be given. You should also study in a
variety of other settings to improve your recollection of the
material after the tests are over.
Police sometimes take witnesses to the scene of the crime in
the hope that such visits will improve their memories of what
they witnessed.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
State-Dependent Memory
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 Sometimes people retrieve memories better when
they are in the same emotional state they were in
when they first stored the memories.\
 Memories that are retrieved because the mood in
which they were originally encoded is re-created are
called state-dependent memories.
 Not only is memory better when people are in the
same moods as when the memories were acquired, it
is also better when people are in the same states of
consciousness.
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Chapter 7
Section 2: Three Processes of Memory
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On the Tip of the Tongue
 Sometimes we come so close to retrieving
information that it seems as though the information is
on the “tip of the tongue.”
 Also know as the “feeling-of-knowing experience.”
 The files in our memory have labels, so to speak, that
include both the sounds and the meanings of words,
we often try to retrieve memories that are on the tip
of the tongue by using either acoustic or semantic
cues.
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Chapter 7
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Homework Practice Online
 Go to http://go.hrw.com
 Type in sy7 ch7
 Complete section 2
 Print
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Chapter 7
Section 3: Three Stages of Memory
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
Question: How are the three stages of memory related to
each other?
 Some images held in sensory memory are
transferred to short-term memory. (STM)
 Information that is repeated in short-term
memory can be transferred to long-term
memory. (LTM)
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Sensory Memory
 First stage of memory and consists of the immediate, initial recording of
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information that enters through our senses.
A memory trace or impression made on our senses by the image would last
for only a fraction of a second.
A memory trace of a visual stimulus held in our sensory memory decays
within a second.
Psychologists believe that all of our senses have sensory registers.
The mental pictures we form of visual stimuli are called icons. Iconic
memories are like snapshots.
The ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time (what
most of us think of as photographic memory) is called eidetic imagery.
Mental traces of sounds, called echoes, are held in a sensory register called
echoic memory.
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Chapter 7
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Short-Term Memory
 It is also called the working memory.
 We use our short-term memory a great deal of the
time.
 When you look up a number in the phone book and
then walk cross the room to reach the phone, you try
to keep the number in your short-term memory long
enough to dial it.
 Information in short-term memory begins to fade
rapidly after several seconds. If you want to keep it
longer you have to keep rehearsing the information or
take other steps to prevent it from fading.
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The Primary and Recency Effects
 Primary effect—the tendency to recall the
initial items in a series of items.
 We may remember first items better because
our minds are fresher when we first see or hear
them.
 Recency effect—the tendency to recall the last
items in a series.
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Chunking
 Chunking—the organization of items into familiar or
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manageable units.
Think back to OTTFFSSENT. If you tried to rememver it
letter by letter, there were 10 distinct pieces, or chunks, of
information to retain in your short-term memory.
It is difficult to remember 10 meaningless chunks.
By encoding OTTFFSSENT as “Other flowers sent” you
reduce the number of chunks from 10 to 3 and you have to
remember the variations in spelling.
Most people can not remember more than 9 items at a time in
their short-term memory.
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Chapter 7
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Interference
 Short-term memory is like a shelf that holds only so much.
 Only a limited amount of information can be retained in short-term
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memory.
Interference occurs when new information appears in short-term memory
and takes the place of what is already there.
Interference is what happened at the party when Dan asked Todd to look at
his watch and tell him the time.
The new numbers bumped the old numbers off the short-term memory
shelf.
Short-term memory is very useful but it is only a temporary solution to the
problem of remembering information.
Short-term memory is the bridge between sensory memory and long-term
memory.
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Chapter 7
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Long-Term Memory
 It is the third and final stage of memory.
 To remember something more than just briefly, you have to
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take certain steps to store it in your long-term memory.
You can use mechanical repetition (maintenance rehearsal) to
transfer information from short-term memory to long-term
memory.
Relating new information (elaborative rehearsal) is another
way.
Your long-term memory already contains far more information
than an encyclopedia or a computer’s hard drive.
Every minute of every day of your life you have been storing
information into your long-term memory.
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Chapter 7
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Capacity of Memory
 Psychologists have yet to discover a limit to how
much can be stored in a person’s long-term memory.
 Even though there is no limit to how much we can
remember, we do not store all of our experiences
permanently.
 We are more apt to remember things that capture our
attention. If we get distracted or uninvolved with
what is occurring around us, we are not going to
remember as much as we will if we are interested or
paying attention.
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Memory as Reconstructive
 Psychologists today recognize that electrical stimulation of the
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brain does not bring about the accurate replay of memories.
Memories are not recorded and played back like videos or
movies. They are reconstructed from the bits and pieces of our
experience.
We tend to remember them according to our beliefs and needs.
In other words, we put our own personal stamp on our
memories.
That is why brothers and sisters can have differing memories
of the same family events. Each sibling has interpreted the
information differently.
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Chapter 7
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Schemas
 Schemas are the mental representations that we form
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of the world by organizing bits of information into
knowledge.
On a sheet of paper, write the words eyeglasses an
hourglass.
Now draw a picture of these two items.
When you draw the items you did not draw them
exactly from memory.
You drew them from you ideas about what eyeglasses
and hourglasses look like.
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
Chapter 7
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Homework Practice Online
 Go to http://go.hrw.com
 Type sy7 ch7
 Click on Section 3
 Complete and Print your quiz
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Chapter 7
Section 4: Forgetting and Memory Improvement
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
Question: In what ways can memory be improved?
IMPROVING MEMORY
 Drill and Practice – doing something over and over
again (repetition)
 Relating to Things One Already Knows – elaborative
rehearsal
 Forming Unusual Associations – making an unusual
or humorous association with something else to help
you recall the information
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Chapter 7
Section 4: Forgetting and Memory Improvement
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Forgetting and Memory Improvement
 Forgetting is the flip side of memory.
 Forgetting can occur at any one of the three stages of
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memory—sensory, short-term, or long-term memory.
Information in long-term memory can also be lost.
Because long-term memory holds such vast amounts of
material and the material is represented in an abstract form,
forgetting and other memory errors occur.
Old learning can interfere with new learning.
For example: if you study a new foreign language, your
knowledge of a language you already know or are studying at
the same time can interfere with your new learning especially
if they are somewhat similar.
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Basic Memory Tasks
 Do you know what DAL, RIK, and KAX are?
 They are nonsense syllables or meaningless
sets of consonants with a vowel in the middle.
 A German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus
used nonsense syllables to study memory and
forgetting.
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Recognition
 Recognition—is one of the three basic memory tasks.
 It involves identifying objects or events that have
been encountered before.
 It is the easiest of the learning tasks. For example—
Multiple Choice tests, you only have to recognize the
correct answer.
 See example on page 168 in textbook—Harry
Bahrick’s study.
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Recall
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The second memory task is recall.
Recall something means to bring it back to mind.
You try to reconstruct it in your mind.
Psychologists also use paired associates to measure
recall. Paired associates are lists of nonsense
syllables.
 The people try to retrieve one syllable with the other
serving as the cue.
 Learning the vocabulary of a foreign language is
something like learning paired associates.
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Relearning
 The third basic memory task is relearning.
 People who have been out of school for 25 years
might not remember the algebraic formulas they
learned when they were in high school. However,
they could probably relearn them very quickly if
someone showed them how to use them again.
 We can usually relearn fairly rapidly things we once
know but forgotten.
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Different Kinds of Forgetting
 Much of the time, forgetting is due to interference or
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decay.
Decay—the fading away of a memory—is similar to
a burning candle.
Both decay and interference are part f normal
forgetting.
Memory loss occurs in long-term memory when
something that has been stored there cannot be
retrieved.
There are more extreme kinds of forgetting.
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Repression
 We sometimes forget things on purpose
without even knowing we are doing it.
 We forget them by pushing them out of our
consciousness.
 Freud called this kind of forgetting repression.
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Amnesia
 Psychoanalysts believe that repression is
responsible for a rare but severe kind of
forgetting called dissociative amnesia.
 Amnesia is severe memory loss caused by
brain injury, shock, fatigue, illness, or
repression.
 Other kinds of amnesia include infantile
amnesia, anterograde amnesia, and retrograde
amnesia.
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Infantile Amnesia
 Some people think that they can remember special events that took place in
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their infancy, but they cannot.
Freud found that they could not remember things that had happened to
them before the age of three. This forgetting of early events is called
infantile amnesia.
People in their 70s and 80s have many precise memories of their life
between the ages of 6 and 10.
College freshmen have difficulty remembering events that occurred before
the age of 6, even though these events occurred only 13 or 14 years earlier.
Freud explained infantile amnesia in terms of repression.
Infantile amnesia probably reflects biological and cognitive factors.
The hippocampus that is involved in the storage of memories does not
become mature until we are about two years old.
Myelination of brain pathways is incomplete for the first few years, so
memory formation remains somewhat inefficient.
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Cognitive Reasons for Infantile Amnesia
 Infants are not particularly interested in
remember the past year
 Infants tend not to weave episodes together
into meaningful stories of their lives.
 Infants do not make reliable use of language to
symbolize or classify events.
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Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia
 Trauma to the brain caused by a blow to the head, electric
shock, or brain surgery can cause memory loss of events that
took place both before and after the trauma.
 Retrograde amnesia—people forget the period leading up to a
traumatic event.
 In the most severe cases of retrograde amnesia, the person
cannot remember a period of several years prior to the
traumatic incident.
 A man received a head injury in a motorcycle accident, he had
no memory of anything that had happened since he was 11
years old. He even thought he was still 11.
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Improving Memory
 Psychologists have been able to identify different
strategies people can use to improve their memory.
 Drill and Practice—going over and over and over
again
 Repetition is one fairly effective way to transfer
information from sensory memory to short-term
memory and from short-term memory to long-term
memory.
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Improving Memory (continued)
 Relate to things you already know
 Elaborative rehearsal
 It requires you to think more deeply about the new
information
 Learning to expand our knowledge by relating new
information to things we already know beings
early.
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Improving Memory (continued)
 Form Unusual Associations
 Try to make it stand our from ordinary things.
 No time to make a list use different body parts to
remember the items.
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Improving Memory (continued)
 Construct Links
 You may find it easier to remember vocabulary
words from a foreign language if you construct a
meaningful link between each foreign word and its
English equivalent.
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Improving Memory (continued)
 Use Mnemonic Devices
 Mnemonic devices are systems form
remembering information. Such devices
usually combine chunks of information into a
format, such as an acronym, phrase, or jingle.
 Example—Roy G. Biv
 Example—HOMES (Great Lakes) Huron, Ontario,
Michigan, Erie and Superior
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Homework Practice Online
 Go to http://go.hrw.com
 Type sy7 ch7
 Click on Section 4
 Complete and Print your quiz
51
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Chapter 7
Section 4: Forgetting and Memory Improvement
PSYCHOLOGY
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Question: In what ways can memory be improved?
IMPROVING MEMORY (continued)
 Constructing Links – constructing a meaningful link
between items
 Using Mnemonic Devices – systems for remembering
information
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PSYCHOLOGY
Chapter 7
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
Question: What are similarities and differences among the three
types of memory?
Episodic
Semantic
53
Memory
Implicit
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
Chapter 7
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
Memory Activities
#1 Reading a Passage
54
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
Chapter 7
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
Memory Activity #1—
 You are about to read a passage about a
kite
55
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
Chapter 7
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
Memory Activity #1—
 A newspaper is better than a magazine, and on a seashore
is a better place than a street. At first it is better to run
than to walk. Also you may have to try several times. It
takes some skill but it's easy to learn. Even young
children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are
minimal. Birds seldom get too close. One needs lots of
room. Rain soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the
same thing can also cause problems. If there are not
complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve
as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you
will not get a second chance.
56
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
Chapter 7
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
 Get out a sheet of paper and a pencil and begin
writing down as many of the 14 facts you can
remember
57
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
PSYCHOLOGY
Chapter 7
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
# 2 Letter Activity
 Look at the following for 10 seconds
 ciAibMKgBTwaMcI
58
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
Chapter 7
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
 Take out a piece of paper and a pencil to write
down exactly what you saw
 Now I will show them to you again
 CIA IBM KGB TWA MCI
59
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
Chapter 7
PSYCHOLOGY
PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE
Guess the Pattern
You have 30 seconds to memorize the words on
the sheet.
Dollar Bill
Dice
Tricycle
Four Leaf Clover
Hand
60
Six Pack
Seven-Up
Octopus
Cat Lives
Bowling Pins
Football Team
Dozen Eggs
Unlucky Friday
Valentine’s Day
Quarter Hour
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON

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