Moving Parents and Children Together (M-PACT)

Report
Emma Cox
M-PACT Development Manager
Lorna Templeton
Independent Research Consultant
Action on Addiction
Head Office, East Knoyle, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6BE
T: 01747 830733
F: 01747 832028
Action on Addiction is a company limited by guarantee registered in England.
Reg. Company Number 05947481
Reg. Charity Number 1117988
Patron – HRH The Duchess of Cambridge
•
Children affected by parental substance misuse and/or having a
parent in prison
• Focus on fathers as this relates more closely to the work undertaken at
HMP Parc
•
•
•
Summarise M-PACT programme
Present qualitative findings from two M-PACT programmes
completed at HMP Parc in Wales
Highlight key successes and areas of learning from the work
and the potential for M-PACT in the prison environment
“Parental substance misuse can have potentially serious consequences for
children, including, but not limited to, poor educational attainment,
emotional difficulties, neglect, abuse and taking on inappropriate caring
responsibilities’” (Velleman & Templeton, 2007)
Estimated that:
• 3.5 million children affected by parental alcohol misuse and
1.5 million by parental drug misuse in the UK (Manning et
al., 2009)
• 160,000 children in the UK have a parent who is in prison
and that this is greater than the number of children in care
or on the ‘at risk’ register (Glover, 2009)
• Nearly half of sentenced prisoners (41% female and 43%
male) have “some degree of drug dependence” (Laing &
McCarthy, 2002)
•
Impact of parental substance misuse on children and of having
a parent in prison, is well documented
• Individual, parenting, relationships, family life
• Cumulative risk if multiple problems present
• PSM/having a parent in prison – predictors of negative outcomes
•
Resilience
• Not all children negatively affected in the same ways
• Individual, family & environmental protective factors
•
•
•
Impact of the prison environment on children
Link between supporting families (during and after a sentence)
and reduction in re-offending
Policy context – increased recognition but continued lack of
services for/involving children
“....[M-PACT] is...a fresh idea, it’s quite innovative, it involves the
family....it’s eye opening, it’s enlightening, it’s quite an exciting
idea....” (prisoner)
Parents
Children
Addiction
To promote and support the health and well being of
children/young people and adults in the context of their
whole family
•
•
•
•
Give children a voice and raise self esteem
Reduce harm and increase safety
Increase understanding and coping with addiction
Improve communication and reduced conflict
•
Children
• aged 8-17
•
Adults (parents, carers)
• Using and non-using
• Capable of meaningful engagement
•
Whole family approach
• Not all family members will choose to attend
Different families at the same time
Work with adults and children together and separately
The programme structure
•
Individual family assessment
•
8 weekly gatherings of 2.5 hours
•
Post-programme individual family review
•
•
•
Reunion
Structured sessions
•
•
•
Aftercare - pathways to additional support and employment
Continuum of support
Flexible to respond to service users
Four facilitators
Accredited training course
•
•
Evaluation of 13 community programmes run in a range of
locations across England
•
•
•
•
Practitioner manual
21 areas across UK (Cornwall, PARC, Essex, Stockton on Tees)
25 programmes delivered
The work at HMP Parc is the first time M-PACT has been
delivered in the prison setting
Category B male prison and YOI in Bridgend, South Wales
Opened in 1997
1300 prisoners, approximately 600 staff
In 2010 the Family Interventions Unit (FIU) opened, under the Parc
Supporting Families (PSF) initiative
•
•
•
•
•
•
Only such Unit in the world for male prisoners
Holds 60 prisoners
Wide range of programmes/interventions available
Other changes to support work of FIU
•
•
•
•
Integrated Visits Centre (2011)
Visits handled by Family Interventions Team
Six facilitators trained
•
•
•
•
•
Members of Family Interventions Team, child play area coordinator, CARAT worker and two prison officers
Two programmes delivered: May-June 2011 and
December 2011-February 2012
Sessions delivered in the Integrated Visits Centre (mainly
in the family room)
Prisoners recruited mainly from FIU but also from
elsewhere in the prison e.g. CARAT team
•
•
•
•
•
Approved by HMP Parc, informed consent
Qualitative evaluation, involving interviews/focus groups
and a drawing exercise
Interviews conducted shortly after the 8th (final) session
Interviews conducted mainly in the family room – most
were audio-recorded
Families received an extra visit and children a gift voucher
10 families (5 each programme): 33 individuals
Eleven male prisoners – all drug users, alcohol also a problem
in small number of cases
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fathers and step-fathers
13 children aged 8-20 years (roughly equal girls and boys)
Nine other adult females (8 partners)
Father attended with two of his children (one of whom attended
the adult group)
Brothers attended with their mother & children of one of the
brothers
All but one participant – White British
High engagement and completion rate
All 10 families completed programme
29 individuals attended 6 or more sessions
All 11 prisoners attended all 8 sessions
11 children attended 6 or more sessions
Evaluation data:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Programme 1 – focus groups with 5 families + 10 interviews
Programme 2 – 11 interviews
Children – 8 interviews & 5 completed drawing exercise
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Enjoyment and learning
Meeting other families – sharing & making friends
Realising not alone – helpful for children
Prisoners supporting each other
M-PACT part of the wider ethos of Parc & FIU
FIU and family room – it doesn’t feel like prison
Facilitators – approach, didn’t wear uniform
Time for adults and children to work separately
Genogram session
Delivery challenges – time to release, engagement of families,
knowledge of children, structure of prison life, multi-disciplinary
team
“[it was] so interesting, and to listen to other people, how they feel about
things as well, it was really really nice....the kids all seemed to get
on as well” (partner)
“.....before I listened to what they were saying I thought I was the only
one....so then I listened to them [and I realised I wasn’t the only
one]” (child)
“....we could sit by each other and speak more....[with] normal visits
there’s a table but now we can hug each other and everything”
(child)
“....it’s nice to show your support and have support off [the other
families] which is hard to find in the real world” (partner)









Readiness and motivation to change
M-PACT does not focus on criminality
‘Breaking the Cycle’ – prisoners wanting this for themselves and
also for their children (relates to drug misuse & offending)
Increase confidence
Shift in communication about their problems
More involved with their children & families
Involvement with other courses and training in prison; getting
‘tagged’, moving to an open prison
Changes in health & lifestyle
Wanting to be a “better man”
"....I've been up for a change for quite some time and that's why I put myself on the
family intervention unit and I've been participating in all the courses available and I
heard about M-PACT coming up and it suited me and the reasons I'm in here....I
just wanted to change and so that's why I took part“
"I’ve been on the drugs since I was fifteen and I’ve got kids now....so it’s time to grow
up now, I’ve just had a big sentence this one the biggest one I’ve ever had so kind
of hit home a bit especially being on the family interventions unit as well it’s more
focused on the families"
“I take an active part now and I'm learning to do that more and more....I am trying to
take an active part as a Dad can from jail.....I take an interest now because I want
to”
“it was nice to see what the kids have been doing [at school] and the improvements
they’ve made....and I think the kids enjoyed me commenting on how they’ve done”
“....my dad says that prison has brought them closer and he’ll never go back and do it
again” (child)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Liked spending more time with their fathers
Less sad, happier
More confident
Less angry
Change in behaviour/more helpful at home
Had more of a voice in their family
Helped them understand more about their fathers being in
prison
Benefitted from reduction in conflict and improved
relationships between their parents
? Reducing future risks? – breaking the cycle
“I want to see my Dad and I want to come in and see him and if it’s on a Monday or
Thursday [and I have to miss my class] I still want to come” (child)
"it made us realise as well how much of an impact everything has on the children....it's
getting to hear their points of view of it all and it can sort of hit home......the children
[have] got points of view as well...they're part of the family so therefore they've got
their points of view as well” (partner)
“....when I came to M-PACT it brought me and my family closer and I could speak out
more....I could act myself rather than asking my mum stuff....[|I could] speak out
loud....it’s better to speak out for myself” (child)
“....an eye opener for him, for him not to fall in the same footsteps with drugs and all this
crap....you’ve got to try and break the cycle”
Whole family approach
•
•
Families hadn’t received help as a family before
Spending time together – different to normal prison visits
•
•
•
•
•
•
Helps keep families together when father in prison
Families planning for the future
Benefits for adult females – less bitter and angry, ?look to
children less for support
•
•
Prisoners compared this to other courses
Caution – onus for change is placed on the prisoner?
Indirect benefits for other family members (who didn’t attend MPACT)
A reunion for one father and his children
"I decided to take part in it because it was something new, I’ve done a lot of
programmes to address my offending behaviour but none of them actually involved
your family....with this....you’re sharing a learning curve with your family it’s about
sharing that learning process I think it was something we [were] able to do"
“as well as you doing the sessions it was also getting quality time together as a
family....which in prison which is invaluable....money can’t buy that kind of stuff...it
was really helpful in more ways than one”
“it was an enjoyable experience, an enlightening journey, it was a journey that we took
together, it’s brought us closer together as a family, as individuals it’s motivated
us....given us a bit more confidence....”
“....it was quite nice that we could learn a bit more [about] being a family.....it was really
good and I liked doing it....because we could do something together” (child)
“we felt like our family had drifted apart and we weren’t a family any more but now we
are, I realise, we are a family, you know, we are a special little family....” (partner)
Listening to children & families
Openness and honesty about the problems
Talking about things and feelings that haven’t been talked about
before
Realising children knew more than adults realised
Addiction: more than just drugs etc.
Increase in prisoner awareness about impact of their problems –
seeing points of view of others
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Caution – it’s my fault, I’ve messed up, I’ve let them down
Importance of the children’s voice
Children understand problems are not their fault
“....with this you actually [get] to hear first-hand how they felt...it was eye
opening, it was upsetting at times.....but it was necessary I think you
know you had to hold on to that feeling and move forward”
“I thought it was a great course, a real eye opener....the fact that you
were bringing out stuff....that [I’d] never talked to him about before
and the effects it has on him and the family and everything.....I
would have known a lot of it until I heard it coming from him”
“I didn’t want [my son] to look up to me [like I did to my father] with all
that, like the wrong ways so I think he knows”
•
•
•
•
•
Less secrecy, more honesty, openness & trust
Helping families understand the prisoners and prison life
Reduction in arguing and conflict
Prisoners become more engaged with their lives of their
children and families e.g. asking about school
Changes in communication moves families together
“....the way we could all open up, cos I’m like a person who tells my
girlfriend things so we could all open up on the course”
“it’s changed our relationship towards my family.....they’ve got a
better relationship and they talk softly” (child)
"it's got us expressing feelings that we want and couldn't express
beforehand“
“[it helped me] a little bit....it’s helped me share feelings with my
mum and dad....and it helped me tell my mum and dad things”
(child)
“if that course didn’t happen I would never have talked to him
about this”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wanting M-PACT to continue
To keep on having family time
Children want to see their fathers; they still have to cope with having
a father who is in prison
Maintaining learning from M-PACT
Takes time to settle in to M-PACT – ? have a couple of ‘introductory’
sessions to aid this process
Suggestions of refresher or booster sessions – particularly for
prisoners who have more time left of their sentence
Benefit of time inside before release – to ‘practice’ M-PACT learning
Families did not tend to think they needed further help; prisoners
wanted to benefit from opportunities in prison
Need to make sure children still have someone they can talk to
“as soon as you started to get settled it was over....a week or two to get settled
and then a bit longer, I think that would have been perfect”
“To be honest I’d have enjoyed a couple more weeks of it because you spend
the time with your family and you’re benefitting from it.....you can always
improve can’t you....just build on the skills you’ve learned...I took so much
out of it....”
“....why I wanted to get on to this M-PACT, to move closer to my family....before
getting out there you know....it’s just my goal...I want to get out to be with
them, me and them, my life is them”
“I feel happy but I feel sad because my dad’s in here, he done what he done
but it’s not his fault.....now he’s done his prison sentence....”(child)
“at the beginning it seemed like quite a long time but then at the end it didn’t
seem long enough so it was quite strange”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Being ready to change
Higher engagement of non-using adults
Focuses on families not offending
‘Breaking the cycle’
The idea of a ‘teachable moment’ for at least one prisoner (first
sentence)
Gender differences – more focus on mothers in the community,
more focus on fathers (to date) at Parc
Bonds between fathers and their children
Engagement and completion – suggests importance of recruitment
and assessment processes, and of individual and family
motivation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Similarity with community programmes
M-PACT meets its aims
Strength in qualitative data and hearing from children
M-PACT targets protective factors (particularly at individual and
family levels) – potential to support resilience?
Facilitating communication between prisoners and their children
Longer-term follow-up needed
• Need to consider e.g. return to drug use, recidivism
“it’s the first time a programme like this has ever run in
prison....you can’t really over-estimate the size of the shift
that’s been needed to do M-PACT.....it wouldn’t work if it was
just M-PACT....it’s quickly become a very important part of
what we’re doing”
•
There are many more services for families affected by substance misuse now
than when M-PACT was developed, but bringing family units together is rare
and so M-PACT is filling a much needed gap
•
More staff from Parc, and from three other G4S prisons (in England) will be
trained in 2012.
•
Further programmes at Parc planned for 2012
•
M-PACT embedded within local areas/local services to respond to the needs of
ALL children across the UK
•
If you would like to find out how YOU can be involved then please contact:
•
Emma Cox – 01747 832015 or 07500 858716 or
[email protected]
•
•
•
•
•
How might a programme like M-PACT work in the public prison
sector?
How might the programme work in a female prison?
Would anything need to be different if the focus was on families
where there were alcohol problems?
What outcome measures could be used to support this work?
How to measure the impact in the longer-term – including how to
assess impact of programme in terms of reducing re-offending?
“I had faith in the programme before, but now that I’ve delivered it I can see
how the impact of the work children did has a lasting effect on
everyone. My observations on the programme are, seeing the participants
change as the sessions moved on………To each of them becoming a
closer, more caring, understanding and supportive family. Families not just
attending family learning, but learning to be families” (Facilitator)
“....you get the opportunity to practice the tools that you’ve developed because if say
for instance I completed M-PACT last week and I was out next week everything’s
still new, still fresh, still uncharted, it’s still un-practiced, it’s new to me, new to [my
wife], new to [my daughter], it’s new to the whole family...we haven’t had a chance
to implement it with maybe little disputes, everyday life, everyday conversation,
everyday communication you know...you get the opportunity to practice and brush
up and turn a tool into a skill...like second nature so to speak....if you’ve practiced
these tools for a few months beforehand they’re going to come in a lot handier
because they’re not going to be shaky.... positivity breeds positivity.....confidence
breeds confidence....it’s a continuous cycle”
“it made me think of things that I wouldn’t have thought of because of the input I had
from [my family], it opened doors that I would probably have left closed...but by
facing them I think I come out better at the other side.....this is my sixth
sentence....and at first I thought this softly softly approach was quite pathetic but I
think this sentence has done for me than any other sentence....M-PACT has been a
major part [of that], it’s turned my thinking around.....I’m [age] and nothing has ever
made me change my way of thinking”

similar documents