Pedagogy and m-Learning PERMANAND MOHAN, PH.D. SENIOR LECTURER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES ST. AUGUSTINE TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO What is Mobile Learning? Learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices (Crompton, 2013) Opportunities of m-Learning Mobile phones provide relatively inexpensive opportunities for learning; mobile devices are widely used around the world Can make use of time spent waiting, commuting, etc. since it enables anytime / anywhere learning Rich variety of multimedia supported (sound, text, pictures, and video files) Wi-Fi and Bluetooth provide opportunities for collaboration while out in the “field” How Best to Use m-Learning? Consider a typical mobile learner: Learner is commuting Learner is waiting somewhere Learner is in a classroom with his/her teacher Learner is at home How Best to Use m-Learning? (Cont’d) m-Learning content and activities can be developed: To support the teacher in the classroom To support the teacher outside the classroom For independent learning For informal learning How to Achieve Learning Objectives? Pedagogy Content Types m-Learning Content and Activities Learning Objectives Mobile Learner How Best to Use m-Learning?(Cont’d) Consider typical types of content: Text Pictures and graphics Audio Videos Simulations and learning games Understanding Learning Objectives Consider typical learning objectives in the cognitive domain: Knowledge and comprehension Application and analysis Synthesis and evaluation Outcomes in the affective (attitude) and psychomotor (skills) domains are not considered Understanding Learning Objectives: How They Relate to Content Knowledge and comprehension State the formula for the area of a circle Give the mathematical formula for the area of a circle, paraphrasing it in your own words Application and analysis Calculate the volume of an irregular shape Given a physics word problem, determine the strategies that can be used to solve it Synthesis and evaluation Apply and integrate several different strategies to solve a physics problem When you have finished a problem, determine the extent to which the problem was solved as efficiently as possible The Real Challenge How to take content and learning objectives from a syllabus and design suitable mobile learning experiences so that the learning objectives are efficiently achieved? Points to Note for m-Learning Developers In designing for m-learning, it is easy to lose focus and think that the technology, by itself, can achieve the desired learning objectives. However, it is the instructional design used in conjunction with the features of the mobile device that will lead to successful learning. Thus, instructional design principles must be considered when designing content for m-learning. Put Another Way … “Designing for mobile learning is not only about mobile devices.” Donald Clark Scientific m-Learning Workshop June 4, 2012 What is Pedagogy? Pedagogy is the art and science of how something is taught and how students learn it. It includes how the teaching occurs, the approach to teaching and learning, the way the content is delivered and what the students learn as a result of the process. Pedagogy involves creating an educational process that will lead to knowledge transfer to a new learner. Common Pedagogy: Direct Instruction More Recent Approaches Constructivism Social constructivism Learning by doing (problem-based learning, active learning, etc.) The father of learning-by-doing pedagogy, John Dewey, suggests: “They (teachers) give the pupils something to do, not something to learn, and the doing is of such a nature as to demand thinking, or the intentional noting of connections; learning naturally results.” Affordances of Mobile Devices Four C’s (Quinn): Consumption of content Interaction with compute capabilities The ability to communicate with others Capture of our contexts (via video and/or audio, orientation, location, time, and increasingly more data Four C’s (Quinn) Pedagogical Strategies Different types of strategies based on the four C’s: Strategies that involve consumption of content Strategies that involve using the compute capabilities of the mobile device Strategies that involve communicating with others Stategies that involve the capturing of our contexts and sharing with peers (e.g., using GPS, accelerometer, camera, recorder, sensors, etc.) MobileMath MobileMath is mobile learning application for high-school algebra. It was developed in 2009-2010 by Vani Kalloo as a research project at the University of the West Indies supervised by me. It offers the learner multiple strategies for learning algebra on a “feature phone”. MobileMath Screenshots Evaluation Studies Study 2: Were taught algebra in a previous term: Used mobile learning with teacher support Study 1: Study 3: Were taught algebra while exposed to mLearning Used mobile learning to complement traditional teaching. Were taught algebra in a previous term: Used mobile learning on their own Three Evaluation Studies (20 students each) Results Pre-test and Post-test 20 18 16 No. of Students 14 12 10 Bar graph illustrates the 8 students who passed: 6 • Group 1 increased from 9 4 to 14 2 • Group 2 increased from 2 0 Pass Fail Pre-test Group 1 9 10 Post-test Group 1 14 5 Pre-test Group 2 2 18 Post-test Group 2 7 13 to 7 Results (Cont’d) Group 1 Group 2 Average % Increase 8.8% 10.2% Duration 14.4 hours 58 hours Frequency 514 861 Results (Cont’d) Frequency of Use of Each Feature 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Lessons Examples Quizzes Tutorials Games Fun Facts • The bar graph shows the number of times each feature was used by the students of all three studies. • It highlights the fact that the Games feature was used the most. Results (Cont’d) Amazingly, there was no difference in the performance of students in Study 3: Experimental group: teacher + mobile application Control group: same teacher Results (Cont’d) Number of Times MobileMath Was Used Per Day 250 200 150 100 50 0 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Now, it is true that … “Students need to concentrate and work, concentrate and work …” Enrica Salvatori Scientific m-Learning Workshop June 5, 2012 Can we achieve the desired learning objectives with this kind of m-Learning behaviour? Questionnaire Questionnaire Responses from Studies 1, 2 and 3 The mathematics games and learning activities on the phone were easy to use The mathematics games and learning activities on the phone helped to improve my skills strongly agree agree neutral If I use these mathematics games and learning activities on a phone for a longer period of time, it can help me improve my skills disagree strongly disagree I found it useful that I can learn mathematics on a phone anywhere and at anytime 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Suggestions from the MobileMath Evaluation Studies Mobile learning is best used after students are taught the main concepts in the classroom. Multiple strategies should be offered so that the learner has options. Games should be included as most students find it appealing. Teacher support should be provided to continually encourage the learner to use the application. Concluding Remarks Mobile devices provide many opportunities for improving learning and retention However, they should only be used as part of a pedagogical process that will result in the transfer of the desired knowledge and skills more efficiently and more effectively than other approaches There may be other approaches, perhaps not involving mobile devices, that could be equally effective.