Early Childhood: Age 2 to 6 Biosocial Development

Early Childhood: Age 2 to 6
Biosocial Development
How does a preschool child’s body change?
What happens when children grow?
 Body slims down – taller & thinner
 Center of gravity lowers
 Enables swinging, gymnastics, etc.
2 years old
6 years old
How does nutrition effect children?
 Overweight children
 = overweight adults
 Diabetes
 Heart disease
How do cavities & gum disease effect
 Early tooth decay = most common disease in young children
in developed countries
 Harms permanent teeth
 Jaw malformation, speech
 Overall health
Do you remember?
 What body changes do children go through from 2 – 6 years
 What is the effect of being overweight in young children?
 What is the effect of poor dental hygiene in young children?
What about brain development?
 Myelin coating of axons
 Speeds brain processing
 Focused on the motor and sensory areas
Corpus callosum
 Connects right and left hemispheres
 Increases coordination
 Increases communication between both sides of the brain
 Lateralization
 Each side specializing
Left hemisphere controls right side
 Left is language & speech
 Left is logical
 Detailed analysis
 Detail focused
Right hemisphere controls left side
 Creative
 Emotional
 Big picture focused
All thinking required both sides of the
Prefrontal cortex
 “Executive” brain
 Planning, analyzing, prioritizing
 Immaturity = Impulsiveness & tendency to persevere (keep
 E.g. “Are we there yet?”
 Longest period of development
 Matures during adolescence
Do you remember?
 What does myelination do?
 What does the corpus callosum do?
 What do the left and right hemispheres do?
 What does the prefrontal cortex do?
 Based on the limbic system
 Amygdala
 Hippocampus
 Hypothalamus
 Aid in emotional expression
and control
 Registers positive & negative emotions
 Related to night terrors
 Children model after parents
 Memory
 Can work with amygdala to recall emotions
 Produces hormones to activate parts of the body in response
to signals from the amygdala and hippocampus.
 E.g. stress and the fight or flight syndrome
Motor skills
 Gross
 Large muscles
 E.g. riding a bike, swinging,
kicking a ball
 Fine
 Small muscles
 Writing, drawing, pouring juice
 Girls tend to develop 6 mos.
Earlier than boys
Do you remember?
 What does the limbic system do?
 What produces emotions?
 What helps with memory?
 What helps you in “fight or flight” situations?
 What are gross and fine motor skills?
Injuries and abuse
Three levels of prevention for avoidable
 Primary prevention
 Preventing a high risk situation from
ever existing
 E.g. Sidewalks and overpasses
 Secondary prevention
 Reducing the risk in an existing high
risk situation
 Salt on roads
 Crossing guards
 Tertiary prevention
 Reducing damage after injury
 Emergency room procedures
 HEPA filters for children with asthma
What are the types of child
 Child abuse
 Deliberate physical, emotional,
or sexual harm
 Child neglect
 Failure to meet physical or
emotional needs
 Law required reporting
suspected maltreatment
What are the symptoms of
 Injuries
 Fantasy play – violence & sexual
 Hostility
 Impulsive reactions
 E.g. Cringing
 Fear of caregiver
 Hypervigilance
Do you remember?
 What are the three levels of prevention of childhood injuries?
 Give examples of each
 Which level pf prevention reduces injury after injury?
 What is the difference between child abuse and child neglect?
 Give examples of each
 What symptoms would you look for in children you suspect
of maltreatment?

similar documents