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“Russia and the EU in
search of new equilibrium
within the new post-2009
gas world”
Prof. Dr. Andrey A.Konoplyanik,
Advisor to the Director General, Gazprom export LLC,
Professor, Chair “International Oil & Gas Business”,
Russian State Gubkin Oil & Gas University
www.konoplyanik.ru
Presentation at the Conference “Europe at the crossroads –
Future perspectives for sources of energy supply in Central
and Western Europe”,
Diplomatic Academy of Vienna, Wien, 12 March 2014
Disclaimer
• Views expressed in this presentation do not
necessarily reflect (may/should reflect) and/or
coincide (may/should be consistent) with
official position of Gazprom Group (incl.
Gazprom JSC and/or Gazprom export LLC), its
stockholders and/or its/their affiliated
persons, and are within full personal
responsibility of the author of this
presentation.
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic
Academy, 12.03.2014
2
Table of contents
1) “New post-2009 gas world” & its material &
perceived “new realities” in Europe
2) EU respond to new realities: diversification
3) Ukraine respond to new realities: diversification
4) Russia’s respond to new realities: diversification
5) New pipelines: “pipes of peace” or “tug of war”?
6) New pipelines by-passing UA vs modernization of
UA GTS: comparative economics
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic
Academy, 12.03.2014
3
New post-2009 gas world & its European
dimension
1) Oversupply due to:
a) Demand-side => market niche for gas narrowed:
i.
ii.
overall decline = economic crisis + energy efficiency
gas substitution = subsidized RES vs (oil-indexed) gas + cheap US
imported coal (US shale gas domino effect #2) vs (oil-indexed) gas
b) Supply-side => competition within this narrowed market
niche increases:
i.
Qatari “garbage gas” to EU prior to Fukushima (US shale gas
domino effect #1)
2) Institutional => 3rd EU Energy Package => concurrent
with EU oversupply situation which triggered
liberalization (upside-down gas reforms)
3) Political => RF-UA gas transit crises => consequences
for EU/Ukraine/Russia
4
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Russia-EU-Ukraine’s new circumstances:
22 days vs. 40+ years => RF-UA vs RF-EU
• Ukraine as integral element of Russia-EU gas supply chain =>
• “Matrix effects” & “Domino effects” of Russia-UA Jan’06/09
gas crises for Russia-EU gas relations/supply chain:
– 22 days of interruptions of Russian gas supplies to the EU via
Ukraine = 3 days in Jan’2006 + 19 days in Jan’2009:
– has overbalanced previous 40+ years (since 1968) of stable & noninterruptible supplies =>
– has changed perceptions within all three parties on stability & noninterruptible character of future gas supply through this chain =>
each party has its own vision & answers & lines of actions
• New perceptions as starting points for objective “domino
effects”:
– political statements & decisions => legal documents => investment
decisions aimed at new perceived equilibrium to be reached
– when investments are made, ‘no return’ points are passed through
• “No return” points for each party => What are they? Whether
they are reached/ passed through already?
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
EU-Ukraine-Russia: in search for new post-2009
equilibrium with different aims & responds &
lines of actions
• EU: to diminish dominant role of Russia as major
gas supplier
• Ukraine: to escape monopoly of Russia as one
single gas supplier
• Russia: to escape monopoly of Ukraine as one
dominant gas transit route
• The aims seems to be totally different (are they?)
=> to find new equilibrium within multidirectional
individually enforced changes
• Narrowing corridor for new equilibrium – but it is
still there => a long & winding road to new
compromise… (if a goodwill is there)
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Table of contents
1) “New post-2009 gas world” & its material &
perceived “new realities” in Europe
2) EU respond to new realities: diversification
3) Ukraine respond to new realities: diversification
4) Russia’s respond to new realities: diversification
5) New pipelines: “pipes of peace” or “tug of war”?
6) New pipelines by-passing UA vs modernization of
UA GTS: comparative economics
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
New risks, new challenges, new responds,
“no return” points: the EU (1)
• Perception: as if non-reliable future supplies from
Russia via Ukraine to EU =>
• Responds: organization of new internal EU gas
market architecture with multiple supplies & (high)
flexibility
• Multiple supplies by:
– Alternatives to Russian gas (supply side): SOS Directive
(3 gas supply sources/MS, etc.), LNG, shale gas, UGS =>
to diminish dominant role of Russia as major supplier
– Alternatives to (RUS) gas (demand side): climate change
=> decarbonization => RES, energy efficiency =>
shrinking gas share in fuel mix => the loser would be a
less competitive gas supplier (perception: most distant &
costly in production & oil-indexed-priced Russian gas ?)
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic
Academy, 12.03.2014
8
New risks, new challenges, new responds,
“no return” points: the EU (2)
• (High) flexibility by:
– Diminishing barriers for gas flows: CMP rules (UIOLI, SoP),
interconnectors, reverse flows, spot trade, demand for softening
LTGEC provisions (TOP), …, new market organization => Third
Energy Package
• Third Energy Package (03.09.2009 => 03.03.2011):
– Set of legal instruments providing multiple supplies & flexibility
within EU (28) & Energy Community Treaty (28+9) area based on
new principles of internal market organization
– from a chain of 3 consecutive LTCs (1968-2009) – to Entry-Exit
zones with Virtual Trading Points (hubs) (2009-onwards)
– New architecture of EU gas market under development => Gas
Target Model + 12 Framework Guidelines + 12 Network Codes + …
• => “No return” point has been passed by EU as a whole !!!
• BUT: economic realities in NWE & CEE are different => not
possible to implement EU legally binding decisions on
diversification in synchronized manner
9
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
EU is not homogenous: CEE & NWE are
different
• NWE & CEE: huge gap in infrastructure density =>
differently prepared for diversification
• EU: Instead of investing in growth of infrastructure
density since fall of COMECON (end-1980-ies, when CEE
started preparation for joining EU), and/or post-2004
(when CEE joined EU), EU authorities has been trying to
limit/discriminate Gazprom in its contractual rights for
infrastructure in CEE/former COMECON (esp.post-2003 –
under unbundled EU gas market) which Gazprom has
financed & constructed earlier within bundled gas EU
market (pre-2003, even through USSR times) =>
contractual mismatches, etc.
• Only post-2006/2009 some investment measures in EU in
increasing infrastructure density, incl. in CEE
10
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Density (saturation) of gas transportation infrastructure in
the EU (trunk pipelines only, km/100 km2),
(preliminary results – the comparative order does matter)
How much will it cost & how
long will it take to cover this gap
in gas infrastructure density
between CEE & NWE to make
diversification possible in CEE ?
30
25
20
15
10
5
Северо-Западная Европа
Центральная и Восточная Европа
Южная Европа
Ирландия
Норвегия
Швеция
Финляндия
Мальта
Кипр
Испания
Португалия
Италия
Греция
Хорватия
Румыния
Болгария
Чехия
Польша
Словения
Словакия
Венгрия
Австрия
Дания
Великобритания
Франция
Нидерланды
Люксембург
Германия
Бельгия
0
Северная Европа
Figures for UK & Denmark should be much higher if offshore pipelines are added (to be
done at the next step of analysis)
Calculations made by E.Orlova, PHD postgraduate student, Chair “International Oil &
Gas Business”, Russian State Gubkin Oil & Gas University, based on the data for
2011/2012, kindly provided by ENTSOG
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Table of contents
1) “New post-2009 gas world” & its material &
perceived “new realities” in Europe
2) EU respond to new realities: diversification
3) Ukraine respond to new realities: diversification
4) Russia’s respond to new realities: diversification
5) New pipelines: “pipes of peace” or “tug of war”?
6) New pipelines by-passing UA vs modernization of
UA GTS: comparative economics
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic
Academy, 12.03.2014
12
New risks, new challenges, new responds,
“no return” points: Ukraine (1)
• UA: Euro-integration vs. CIS-integration => this “no
return” point was passed in 2004 => Euro-integration
choice de facto in place in energy sector since then =>
• Since Spring’2004 => UA demand to unbundle supply &
transit contracts & to move to “European formulas” in
RUS-UA gas trade:
– UA expectations: to receive higher transit rates
– UA reality: has received higher import prices
• Since 2006/2009: UA disagreement on import pricing
formula & price level resulted from the move to
“European formulas”=> transit crises Jan’2006 & Jan’2009
resulted, inter alia, from disagreements with “European
formulas” in supply contracts
• Perception of further RUS supply risks => search for
multiple supplies => to escape monopoly of Russia as one
13
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic
single supplier =>
Academy, 12.03.2014
New risks, new challenges, new responds, “no
return” points: Ukraine (2)
• UA economic & legal motivation to diminish dependence
on RUS gas supplies:
– Economic: High import price & RUS/Gazprom unwillingness to
soften pricing policy (no price review results achieved yet –
though price concessions) stipulates UA search for:
• alternatives to RUS gas (supply side): domestic production – onshore
& offshore, shale gas, LNG import, reverse flows & UGS, and
• to deviate from (RUS) gas (demand side): switch gas to coal, nuclear,
energy saving & improving efficiency
– Legal: Euro-integration policy, membership in Energy
Community Treaty => implementation of EU energy acquis
(Second => Third EU Energy Package) in UA => legal
obligations for alternative supplies, interconnectors, reverse
flows, unbundling Naftogas Ukraine, MTPA => BUT: new &
incremental risks for transit via Ukraine (both for RF & EU)
• “No return” point is almost reached? If not yet (?) – is it
just a matter of time since trend “away from Russian gas”
is not to be changed in UA?
14
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic
Academy, 12.03.2014
Table of contents
1) “New post-2009 gas world” & its material &
perceived “new realities” in Europe
2) EU respond to new realities: diversification
3) Ukraine respond to new realities: diversification
4) Russia’s respond to new realities: diversification
5) New pipelines: “pipes of peace” or “tug of war”?
6) New pipelines by-passing UA vs modernization of
UA GTS: comparative economics
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic
Academy, 12.03.2014
15
New risks, new challenges, new responds,
“no return” points: Russia (1)
• Supply risks:
– non-fulfillment of contractual obligations by Ukraine = inter alia,
negative upstream investment consequences for Russia
• Transit risks (within UA territory, post-2006/2009) – both
materialized & perceived risks,
– Materialized: not sanctioned off-take of gas in transit (at least 2
episodes – Jan’2006 & Jan’2009) => but:
• it is RUS supplier who is fully responsible for gas delivery to EU delivery
point (non-dependent e.g. transit problems) =>
• risk of legal claims of EU customer against RUS supplier in case of nondelivery (supply contract) even if violation of transit contract =>
• EU customers have not raised such claims in Jan’2006 / Jan’2009 cases, but
what about the future if repeated?
– Perceived: to materialize in near future – result of UA accession to
Energy Community Treaty (see above):
• MTPA vs transit flows (risk of contractual mismatch)
• Forthcoming unbundling of Naftogas UA => risk of factual unilateral change
(disappearance) of one Contracting Party to 10Y-long transit contract
• Etc.
16
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
New risks, new challenges, new responds, “no
return” points: Russia (2)
• Change of the whole transit economics for supplier if
precedent-based “risk” element included => responds:
– to escape monopoly of Ukraine as one dominant transit route =>
to create alternative & non-transit routes => their economics
compared to existing transit routes improved by increasing value of
transit risks (see next chapter) =>
• Dilemma:
– Two routes (incl. transit) to each major markets (“least radical”
scenario):
• (a) UA GTS + [Nord Stream/OPAL/Gazelle] => to North-West Europe,
• (b) UA GTS + [South Stream (offshore + onshore)] => to Southern Europe,
• Supply volumes to be distributed within each pair of routes, or
– One direct new (non transit) route to each major market (“most
radical” scenario):
• (a) Nord Stream/OPAL/Gazelle => to North-West Europe,
• (b) South Stream (offshore + onshore) => to Southern Europe
• All transit volumes switched to new routes? => UA GTS dried up?
• Different “no return” points under different scenarios: some
are passed, other – not yet => no clear final picture yet… 17
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Ukrainian by-passes: alternative gas pipelines to major
RUS markets in EU (2 routes for each market)
1
2
3
4
Delivery points:
- Baumgarten
- Waidhaus
- Saint Katarine
- Mallnow
4
3
2
2
1
1
Bottlenecks at UA route to Southern EU (justification for South Stream with new DP):
1 - UA transit crises Jan’06/Jan’09
2 - TAG auctions Dec’05/May’07
18
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Table of contents
1) “New post-2009 gas world” & its material &
perceived “new realities” in Europe
2) EU respond to new realities: diversification
3) Ukraine respond to new realities: diversification
4) Russia’s respond to new realities: diversification
5) New pipelines: “pipes of peace” or “tug of war”?
6) New pipelines by-passing UA vs modernization of
UA GTS: comparative economics
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Alternative pipelines: problems to be solved
(Nord Stream/OPAL/Gazelle)
• No EU permission yet for 100% utilization of OPAL
capacity (worsens whole project economics - 2Y
non-pay-back) though no 3rd party suppliers:
– BNetzA decision on OPAL changed 3 times (3rd one as
of 18.11.2013); deadline for final EU decision (was
preliminary positive & mutually acceptable) was
10.03.2014;
– Oettinger: it is postponed => de facto politicallymotivated EU embargo?
– 07.03 EU decision: 1st level sanctions on Russia; EU to
decide whether to come on 17.03 to 2nd level
sanctions; but OPAL non-decision – de facto 3rd level
sanctions (trade restrictions; usually implemented in
case of war)A.Konoplyanik,
=> ???Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
20
Alternative pipelines: problems to be solved
(South Stream/offshore & onshore)
• No clear view on procedure onshore EU yet. Options:
– bilateral RUS-EU MSs agreements (IGAs) => debate with CEC
continued, but “no go” for EU as multiply & clearly stated,
– RF-EU bilateral infrastructure agreement => RF presented its
draft to EU long ago => low interest from EU => “a long &
winding road” & low probability
– Art.36: derogations from EU acquis if Gazprom is shipper & TSO
=> too late: FID already taken/construction started
– Art.13.2: no derogations needed if Gazprom as shipper only =>
“TSO shall invest” in case of market demand for capacity =>
• RF-EU GAC: such procedures does not exist in EU => GAC WS2
“Strawman” proposal to ACER (17.09.2013) => RUS/GG among “Prime
movers” of ENTSOG “Incremental Proposal” => proposed solution:
“coordinated open season” for “new” cross-border capacity
• Whether EU will accept/insert in CAM NC such proposal in workable
format (to provide financeability & cross-border TSO coordination) ? =>
• Reserve option that might become a mainstream procedure
• BUT: Oettinger statement to freeze RF-EU consultations on
rd EU energy Package rules =>?
21
adaptation South
Stream
to
3
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Table of contents
1) “New post-2009 gas world” & its material &
perceived “new realities” in Europe
2) EU respond to new realities: diversification
3) Ukraine respond to new realities: diversification
4) Russia’s respond to new realities: diversification
5) New pipelines: “pipes of peace” or “tug of war”?
6) New pipelines by-passing UA vs modernization of
UA GTS: comparative economics
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
“NATURAL” VS. “FINAL” COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGES OF ENERGY PROJECTS
$/boe
$/boe
Project A
Project B
Financing costs B
Financing costs A
I
Technical costs B
Technical costs A
t
I
II
Total costs B
Total costs A
II
t
“Natural advantage” of project A over project B (A < B)
Final competitive disadvantage of project A
over project B (A > B)
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Russia & Ukraine at the scale of major international rating agencies
(long-term investment credit ratings in foreign curency)
Investment
grades
Speculative
grades
09.11.2012,
LIBOR 1Y:
USD=0.86,
EUR=0.52,
GBP=1.07
Moody's
Standard & Poor's
Fitch IBCA
Short description
Ааа
ААА
ААА
Maximum safety level
Аа1
АА+
AA+
Аа2
АА
AA
Аа3
АА-
AA-
А1
А+
A+
А2
А
A
А3
А-
A-
Ваа1 (RUSSIA: rating
awarded 08.10.2008)
ВВВ+
BBB+
Ваа2
ВВВ (RUSSIA: rating
confirmed 31.08.2011)
BBB (RUSSIA: rating
confirmed 02.09.2011)
Ваа3
ВВВ-
BBB-
Ва1
ВВ+
BB+
Ва2
ВВ
BB
Ва3
ВВ-
BB-
В1
В+
B+
В2
В (UA, 07.12.2012)
B
В3 (UA, 05.12.2012)
В-
B-
Саа
ССС+
CCC (UA, 28.02.2014)
--
ССС
--
--
ССС-
--
Са
СС
--
С
С
--
--
--
DDD
--
SD
DD
--
D
D
--
--
--
High level of reliability
LIBOR+
Up to
4,25%
Reliability above medium
Reliability below
medium
Up to
6%
Non-investment, speculative
grade
Up to
14%
Highly speculative
grade
High risk, emitter is
in difficult situation
Up to
19%
Highest speculative rating,
default possible
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Default
Up to
204%
UA GTS modernization vs ‘South Stream’: illustrative
example of ‘project financing’ cost comparison, incl.
comparative risks & credit ratings within time frame
Assumed costs
Increasing UA-related
investment risks & declining UA
credit rating makes SS
construction more & more
economically justifiable in a
project financing world
2004/2006 => onwards
Host state, companiessponsors, project ratings
UA GTS modernization
technical + financial costs
South Stream construction
technical + financial costs
South Stream construction
technical costs
UA GTS modernization
technical costs
LIBOR+
Time accompanied by increasing risks &
decreasing credit rating of the state (UA)
25
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic Academy, 12.03.2014
Thank you for your
attention!
www.konoplyanik.ru
[email protected]
[email protected]
A.Konoplyanik, Vienna Diplomatic
Academy, 12.03.2014
26

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