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CHAPTER 6 USING WEATHER
DATA
LESSON 1THE ATMOSPHERE
• GASES IN THE AIR.
THE ATMOSPHERE IS MADE UP MOSTLY OF NITROGEN AND OXYGEN. NITROGEN IS
78%, AND OXYGEN IS 21% OF OUR ATMOSPHERE. NITROGEN IS WHAT PLANTS NEED TO
GROW. OXYGEN IS WHAT LIVING THINGS NEED TO SURVIVE. NITROGEN AND OXYGEN ARE
NOT THE ONLY GASES THAT MAKE UP AIR. TWO OF THESE SUBSTANCES ARE CARBON DIOXIDE
AND WATER.
HOW CLIMATE AND WEATHER ARE DIFFERENT
• WEATHER IS THE STATE OF THE ATMOSPHERE AT A PLACE AND TIME AS REGARDS HEAT,
DRYNESS, SUNSHINE, WIND, RAIN, ETC.
CLIMATE IS A REGION WITH PARTICULAR PREVAILING WEATHER CONDITIONS.
LESSON 2 THE WATER CYCLE AND WEATHER
ABOUT THREE-FOURTHS OF EARTH’S SURFACE IS COVERED BY WATER. LIQUID WATER CAN
BECOME WATER VAPOR AT LOWER TEMPERATURES. THIS HAPPENS IN A PROCESS CALLED
EVAPORATION, IN WHICH THE SURFACE OF THE WATER SLOWLY CHANGES INTO A GAS. THE
LITTLE DROPLETS OF WATER FORMED BY CONDENSATION, THE CHANGE OF STATE FROM GAS TO
LIQUID. THE WATER CYCLE IS THE MOVEMENT OF WATER INTO THE AIR AS WATER VAPOR AND
BACK TO EARTH’S SURFACE AS PRECIPITATION. PRECIPITATION IS ANY FORM OF WATER THAT
FALLS FROM THE CLOUDS TO EARTH’S SURFACE.
LESSON 3 THE WEATHER FACTORS
WEATHER FACTORS DESCRIBE WEATHER . A BAROMETER MEASURES AIR PRESSURE IN UNITS
CALLED MILLIBARS. AN ANEMOMETER CALCULATES THE WIND SPEED IN KILOMETERS PER HOUR
OR MILES PER HOUR. A RAIN GAUGE MEASURES THE AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION THAT HAS
FALLEN IN AN AREA. A THERMOMETER MEASURES TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES CELSIUS, OR
DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.
LESSON 4 CLIMATES OF THE WORLD
CLIMATE IS THE AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS IN AN AREA OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME. A
TROPICAL CLIMATE IS HOT AND RAINY. POLAR CLIMATE HAS VERY COLD TEMPERATURES ALL
THROUGH THE YEAR. A TEMPERATE CLIMATE USUALLY HAS WARM, DRY SUMMERS AND COLD,
WET WINTERS.
CAUSE AND AFFECT, HOW CLIMATE CHANGES
CAUSE
1.
EFFECT
CAUSE, OCEANS, LARGE BODY OF WATER
AND OTHER BODIES OF WATER.
1.
EFFECT, USUALLY THE CLIMATE OF NEARBY
2.
LATITUDE IS THE DISTANCE NORTH OR
SOUTH FROM THE EQUATOR.
2.
3.
ALTITUDE, OR HEIGHT ABOVE SEA LEVEL.
LOW LATITUDES ARE NEAR THE EQUATOR.
EQUATOR. THE SUN IS HIGH IN THE SKY
AND THE TEMPERATURE IS HOT.
4.
MOUNTAINS ALSO AFFECT EARTHS CLIMATE.
3.
THE HIGHER YOU TRAVEL UP A MOUNTAIN,
THE COLDER IT GETS.
4.
MOUNTAINS CAN BLOCK THE PATH OF AIR
MASSES.
LAND AREAS ARE BE WET AND MILD.

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