Differentiation for Special Education in a Common Core World

Report
Differentiation for Special Education
in a Common Core World
Dr. Gail Angus
Riverside County SELPA
Today will be successful if
this question is answered.
What Do We Know About
Special Education?
• It is both reliant upon and symptomatic of
general education
• It is a set of supports and services, not a
location
• Students with disabilities are general
education students first and should be
treated as such both instructionally and
fiscally
• It is intended to accommodate for or
address a disability that affects learning,
not make up for poor instruction
Developed by Gail Angus
Expectation: Who Can Learn
Literature on expectations suggests students
learn what we expect them to learn.
Some students – with and without disabilities –
may not achieve to the levels we hope even
after high quality standards-based instruction.
But we have no way to predict which ones so
we have to teach them ALL well!
National Center on Educational Outcomes, NASBE Regional Meeting August 12, 2011
http://www.ncscpartners.org/Media/Default/PDFs/Resources/Thurlow-CCSS-SWD-8-2011.pdf
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IGD9oLofks&lr=1
DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE LEVELS
(The Depth of Knowledge is not determined by the verb, but what comes after the verb and the
context in which the verb is used, i.e., the depth of thinking required.)
Level 2: Skills/Concepts
Includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing
a response. Items require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the
question or problem. These actions imply more than one mental or cognitive process/step.
Level 3: Strategic Thinking:
Requires deep understanding as exhibited through planning, using evidence, and more
demanding cognitive reasoning. The cognitive demands at this level are complex and
abstract. An assessment item that has more than one possible answer and requires
students to justify the response they give would most likely be a Level 3.
Level 4: Extended Thinking
Requires high cognitive demand and is very complex. Students are expected to make
connections – relate ideas within the content or among content areas – and have to
select or devise one approach among many alternatives on how the situation can be solved.
Due to the complexity of cognitive demand, this level often requires an extended period of time.
Increased Complexity
Level 1: Recall and Reproduction
Page 3
Requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or performance of a
simple process or procedure. Answering a level 1 item involves following a simple,
well-known procedure or formula. Simple skills and abilities or recall characterize this level.
DOK Level Activities
Analyze CCSS, instruction, assessment and goals
Cognitive Rigor Matrix – Reading ([email protected])
Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
Webb’s DOK Level 1
Webb’s DOK Level 2
Recall & Reproduction
Skills & Concepts
Remember
o
Recall, recognize, or locate
Retrieve knowledge from longbasic facts, details, events, or
ideas explicit in texts
term memory, recognize,
recall, locate, identify
o
Read words orally in connected
text with fluency & accuracy
o
Define terms
Understand
Construct meaning, clarify,
paraphrase, represent,
translate, illustrate, give
examples, classify, categorize,
summarize, generalize, infer a
logical conclusion), predict,
compare/contrast, match like
ideas, explain, construct
models
o
o
o
Identify or describe literary
elements (characters, setting,
sequence, etc.)
Select appropriate words when
intended meaning/definition is
clearly evident
Describe/explain who, what,
where, when, or how
o
o
o
o
o
o
Apply
Carry out or use a procedure
in a given situation; carry out
(apply to a familiar task), or
use (apply) to an unfamiliar
task
o
Analyze
Break into constituent parts,
determine how parts relate,
differentiate between relevantirrelevant, distinguish, focus,
select, organize, outline, find
coherence, deconstruct (e.g.,
for bias or point of view)
o
Use language structure
(pre/suffix) or word
relationships
(synonym/antonym) to
determine meaning of words
o
Identify whether specific
information is contained in
graphic representations (e.g.,
map, chart, table, graph, Tchart, diagram) or text features
(e.g., headings, subheadings,
captions)
o
o
o
o
o
o
Webb’s DOK Level 3
Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning
Webb’s DOK Level 4
Extended Thinking
Specify, explain, show
relationships; explain why, causeeffect
Give non-examples/examples
Summarize results, concepts,
ideas
Make basic inferences or logical
predictions from data or texts
Identify main ideas or accurate
generalizations of texts
Locate information to support
explicit-implicit central ideas
Use context to identify the meaning
of words/phrases
Obtain and interpret information
using text features
o
Explain, generalize, or connect
ideas using supporting evidence
(quote, example, text reference)
Identify/ make inferences about
explicit or implicit themes
Describe how word choice, point
of view, or bias may affect the
readers’ interpretation of a text
o
o
Apply a concept in a new context
o
Illustrate how multiple themes
(historical, geographic,
social) may be interrelated
Categorize/compare literary
elements, terms, facts, details,
events
Identify use of literary devices
Analyze format, organization, &
internal text structure (signal
words, transitions, semantic cues)
of different texts
Distinguish: relevant-irrelevant
information; fact/opinion
Identify characteristic text features;
distinguish between texts, genres
o
Analyze information within data
sets or texts
Analyze interrelationships among
concepts, issues, problems
Analyze or interpret author’s craft
(literary devices, viewpoint, or
potential bias) to critique a text
Use reasoning, planning, and
evidence to support inferences
o
Analyze multiple sources of
evidence, or multiple works
by the same author, or
across genres, time periods,
themes
Analyze complex/abstract
themes, perspectives,
concepts
Gather, analyze, and
organize multiple information
sources
Analyze discourse styles
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Generate conjectures or
hypotheses based on observations
or prior knowledge and experience
o
o
o
o
o
Evaluate
Make judgments based on
criteria, check, detect
inconsistencies or fallacies,
judge, critique
Create
Reorganize elements into new
patterns/structures, generate,
hypothesize, design, plan,
produce
o
o
o
o
Cite evidence and develop a
logical argument for conjectures
Describe, compare, and contrast
solution methods
Verify reasonableness of results
Critique conclusions drawn
o
Synthesize information within one
source or text
Develop a complex model for a
given situation
Develop an alternative solution
o
o
o
o
Explain how concepts or
ideas specifically relate to
other content domains or
concepts
Develop generalizations of
the results obtained or
strategies used and apply
them to new problem
situations
Evaluate relevancy,
accuracy, & completeness of
information from multiple
sources
Draw & justify conclusions
Apply understanding in a
novel way, provide argument
or justification for the
application
Synthesize information
across multiple sources or
texts
Articulate a new voice,
alternate theme, new
knowledge or perspective
Cognitive Rigor Matrix – Writing ([email protected])
Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
Webb’s DOK Level 1
Recall & Reproduction
Webb’s DOK Level 2
Skills & Concepts
Webb’s DOK Level 3
Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning
Webb’s DOK Level 4
Extended Thinking
Understand
Construct meaning, clarify,
paraphrase, represent,
translate, illustrate, give
examples, classify, categorize,
summarize, generalize, infer a
logical conclusion), predict,
compare/contrast, match like
ideas, explain, construct
models
Apply
Carry out or use a procedure
in a given situation; carry out
(apply to a familiar task), or
use (apply) to an unfamiliar
task
o
o
Specify, explain, show
relationships; explain why, causeeffect
Give non-examples/examples
Take notes; organize ideas/data
Summarize results, concepts,
ideas
Identify main ideas or accurate
generalizations of texts
o
Explain, generalize, or connect
ideas using supporting evidence
(quote, example, text reference)
Write multi-paragraph
composition for specific purpose,
focus, voice, tone, & audience
o
Use context to identify the meaning
of words/phrases
Obtain and interpret information
using text features
Develop a text that may be limited
to one paragraph
Apply simple organizational
structures (paragraph, sentence
types) in writing
o
Revise final draft for meaning or
progression of ideas
Apply internal consistency of text
organization and structure to
composing a full composition
Apply a concept in a new context
Apply word choice, point of view,
style to impact readers’
interpretation of a text
o
Analyze
Break into constituent parts,
determine how parts relate,
differentiate between relevantirrelevant, distinguish, focus,
select, organize, outline, find
coherence, deconstruct (e.g.,
for bias, point of view)
o
Compare literary elements, terms,
facts, details, events
Analyze format, organization, &
internal text structure (signal
words, transitions, semantic cues)
of different texts
Distinguish: relevant-irrelevant
information; fact/opinion
o
Analyze interrelationships among
concepts, issues, problems
Apply tools of author’s craft
(literary devices, viewpoint, or
potential dialogue) with intent
Use reasoning, planning, and
evidence to support inferences
made
o
Remember
Retrieve knowledge from longterm memory, recognize,
recall, locate, identify
o
o
Describe or define facts,
details, terms
Select appropriate words to
use when intended
meaning/definition is clearly
evident
Write simple sentences
o
o
o
o
o
o
Apply rules or use resources to o
edit specific spelling, grammar,
punctuation, conventions, word o
use
Apply basic formats for
o
documenting sources
o
Decide which text structure is
appropriate to audience and
purpose
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Evaluate
Make judgments based on
criteria, check, detect
inconsistencies or fallacies,
judge, critique
Create
Reorganize elements into new
patterns/structures, generate,
hypothesize, design, plan,
produce
o
o
o
o
Brainstorm ideas, concepts,
problems, or perspectives
related to a topic or concept
o
Generate conjectures or
hypotheses based on observations
or prior knowledge and experience
o
o
Cite evidence and develop a
logical argument for conjectures
Describe, compare, and contrast
solution methods
Verify reasonableness of results
Justify or critique conclusions
o
Develop a complex model for a
given situation
Develop an alternative solution
o
o
o
o
Explain how concepts or
ideas specifically relate to
other content domains or
concepts
Develop generalizations of
the results obtained or
strategies used and apply
them to new problem
situations
Select or devise an approach
among many alternatives to
research a novel problem
Illustrate how multiple themes
(historical, geographic,
social) may be interrelated
Analyze multiple sources of
evidence, or multiple works
by the same author, or
across genres, or time
periods
Analyze complex/abstract
themes, perspectives,
concepts
Gather, analyze, and
organize multiple information
sources
Evaluate relevancy,
accuracy, & completeness of
information from multiple
sources
Draw & justify conclusions
Apply understanding in a
novel way, provide argument
or justification for the
application
Synthesize information
across multiple sources or
texts
Articulate a new voice,
alternate theme, new
knowledge or perspective
Cognitive Rigor Matrix – Math and Science ([email protected])
Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
Webb’s DOK Level 1
Recall & Reproduction
Remember
o
Recall, observe, & recognize
facts, principles, properties
Retrieve knowledge from longterm memory, recognize,
o
Recall/ identify conversions
recall, locate, identify
among representations or
numbers (e.g., customary and
metric measures)
Understand
Construct meaning, clarify,
paraphrase, represent,
translate, illustrate, give
examples, classify, categorize,
summarize, generalize, infer a
logical conclusion (such as
from examples given), predict,
compare/contrast, match like
ideas, explain, construct
models
o
o
Apply
Carry out or use a procedure
in a given situation; carry out
(apply to a familiar task), or
use (apply) to an unfamiliar
task
o
o
o
o
Webb’s DOK Level 3
Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning
Webb’s DOK Level 4
Extended Thinking
o
Specify and explain relationships
(e.g., non-examples/examples;
cause-effect)
Make and record observations
Explain steps followed
Summarize results or concepts
Make basic inferences or logical
predictions from data/observations
Use models /diagrams to represent
or explain mathematical concepts
Make and explain estimates
o
Use concepts to solve non-routine
problems
Explain, generalize, or connect
ideas using supporting evidence
Make and justify conjectures
Explain thinking when more than
one response is possible
Explain phenomena in terms of
concepts
o
Select a procedure according to
criteria and perform it
Solve routine problem applying
multiple concepts or decision points
Retrieve information from a table,
graph, or figure and use it solve a
problem requiring multiple steps
Translate between tables, graphs,
words, and symbolic notations
(e.g., graph data from a table)
Construct models given criteria
o
Design investigation for a specific
purpose or research question
Conduct a designed investigation
Use concepts to solve non-routine
problems
Use & show reasoning, planning,
and evidence
Translate between problem &
symbolic notation when not a
direct translation
o
Categorize, classify materials, data,
figures based on characteristics
Organize or order data
Compare/ contrast figures or data
Select appropriate graph and
organize & display data
Interpret data from a simple graph
Extend a pattern
o
Compare information within or
across data sets or texts
Analyze and draw conclusions
from data, citing evidence
Generalize a pattern
Interpret data from complex graph
Analyze similarities/differences
between procedures or solutions
o
Cite evidence and develop a
logical argument for concepts or
solutions
Describe, compare, and contrast
solution methods
Verify reasonableness of results
o
Synthesize information within one
data set, source, or text
Formulate an original problem
given a situation
Develop a scientific/mathematical
model for a complex situation
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Analyze
Break into constituent parts,
determine how parts relate,
differentiate between relevantirrelevant, distinguish, focus,
select, organize, outline, find
coherence, deconstruct
Evaluate an expression
Locate points on a grid or
number on number line
Solve a one-step problem
Represent math relationships
in words, pictures, or symbols
Read, write, compare decimals
in scientific notation
Webb’s DOK Level 2
Skills & Concepts
o
o
o
Follow simple procedures
(recipe-type directions)
Calculate, measure, apply a
rule (e.g., rounding)
Apply algorithm or formula
(e.g., area, perimeter)
Solve linear equations
Make conversions among
representations or numbers, or
within and between customary
and metric measures
o
Retrieve information from a
table or graph to answer a
question
Identify whether specific
information is contained in
graphic representations (e.g.,
table, graph, T-chart, diagram)
Identify a pattern/trend
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Evaluate
Make judgments based on
criteria, check, detect
inconsistencies or fallacies,
judge, critique
o
o
Create
Reorganize elements into new
patterns/structures, generate,
hypothesize, design, plan,
construct, produce
o
Brainstorm ideas, concepts, or
perspectives related to a topic
o
Generate conjectures or
hypotheses based on observations
or prior knowledge and experience
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Relate mathematical or
scientific concepts to other
content areas, other
domains, or other concepts
Develop generalizations of
the results obtained and the
strategies used (from
investigation or readings) and
apply them to new problem
situations
Select or devise approach
among many alternatives to
solve a problem
Conduct a project that
specifies a problem, identifies
solution paths, solves the
problem, and reports results
Analyze multiple sources of
evidence
analyze complex/abstract
themes
Gather, analyze, and
evaluate information
Gather, analyze, & evaluate
information to draw
conclusions
Apply understanding in a
novel way, provide argument
or justification for the
application
Synthesize information
across multiple sources or
texts
Design a mathematical model
to inform and solve a
practical or abstract situation
An integrated model of literacy
Although the Standards are divided into Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language strands for
conceptual clarity, the processes of communication are closely connected, as reflected throughout this document.
For example, Writing standard 9 requires that students be able to write about what they read. Likewise, Speaking
and Listening Standard 4 sets the expectation that students will share findings from their research.
-Sacramento County of Education CCSS Document
CCSS RL – Integrated Literacy
• Find references to “prompting and support” and
“ask and answer questions”
Page 8
• RL.K-12.4: reference to L.K-12.4-6
• RL.K-2.5: differentiates between RL and RI
• RL.K-5.8: is not applicable
• RL.3&4.5: integrates writing and speaking
• RL.2.6: integrates speaking
• RL.4.7: integrates speaking (oral presentation
receptive language)
• Note executive functions and ask, “under what
conditions will the student demonstrate mastery?
Group Activity
• Review the
Integrated Model for
Literacy found on
page 8.
• Examine the CCSSELA through this
lens.
Analysis of the CCSS
CCSS.6.RL.7
• How many tasks can this standard be broken into?
• Is this a receptive or expressive skill?
• What are the language-based literacy expectations
contained in this standard?
• What cognitive skills are necessary to master this
standard?
Analysis of the CCSS
CCSS.3-5.L.3
• What is the essential understanding(s) of the
three standards above?
• What are the integrated literacy expectations?
• How are these standards preparing students for
college and career readiness?
Accommodations
Assistive
Technology
Service Delivery
Goals
IEP
Process
State
Assessments
Where to set the goals…
GOALS
GRADE-LEVEL
ACHIEVEMENT-LEVEL
The IEP Creates Access to the Curriculum
Science/
Social
Studies
Real Life
Skills
IEP
Goals
ELA
Math
- But is not Itself a curriculum
Academic and Functional Goals
• Develop measurable annual goals aligned with Common
Core State Standards.
Include:
• Performance based terms
- See it, describe it
• Important conditions
• Given materials, on teacher request, etc.
• Measure
• Time, Accuracy, Difficulty Level
• Six goal writing components
• By when, who, does what, given what, how
much, as measured by
Measurable Annual Goals
Components
CCSS.5.W.4
By March 21st, 2015, when provided a verbal and
written 5th grade writing prompt on a familiar
topic, a sequencing graphic organizer,
(keyboard?) and 30 minutes to write, Jenifer will
write a 3 paragraph narrative essay with
appropriate structure, organization, and
sequence using transition words with 5 or fewer
errors using student work samples as measured
by classroom writing rubric.
In the example above, identify the six components of a wellwritten goal.
Measurable Annual Goals
Components
CCSS.5.SL.4(a)
Measurable Annual Goals
Components
CCSS.5.SL.4(a)
By March 21st, 2015, Bob will choose 5
destinations (from a possible 10) to visit on a
campus field trip, (playground, cafeteria,
principal’s office, etc.) and he will correctly
sequence the places visited using picture
communication immediately upon return to
classroom and identify his favorite by handing
the picture to the adult with 90% accuracy as
measured by teacher charting.
In the example above, identify the six components of a wellwritten goal.
Group Activity
With your Elbow Partner
and discuss • Is this different then the
process you use?
• Does this confirm how you
write goals?
• What questions do you still
have about writing goals
using CCSS?
Select the Standard
Based on student’s need and grade-level
Fifth Grade Student who is able to use appropriate
adjectives and adverbs to describe.
Strand: Language - Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
Standard Six:
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate
general academic and domain-specific words and
phrases, including those that signal contrast,
addition, and other logical relationships (e.g.,
however, although, nevertheless, similarly,
moreover, in addition).
Label the standard - L.5.6 or 5.L.6
Scaffolding A Standard
• Fourth Grade – Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general
academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that
signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed,
whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g.,
wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal
preservation).
• Third Grade – Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate
conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and
phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships
(e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).
• Second Grade – Use words and phrases acquired through
conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts,
including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other
kids are happy that makes me happy).
• First Grade - Use words and phrases acquired through conversations,
reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using
frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g.,
because).
3rd - Look at the specific skills identified at each grade-level
1st – 2nd : Use words and
phrases acquired through
conversations, reading and
being read to, and
responding to texts
• 1st - using frequently
occurring conjunctions
to signal simple
relationships
• 2nd - using adjectives
and adverbs to
describe
3rd – 5th : Acquire and use
accurately grade-appropriate
general academic and domainspecific words and phrases
• 3rd - spatial and temporal
relationships
• 4th - precise actions,
emotions, or states of
being
• 5th - contrast, addition,
and other logical
relationships
4th – Write a measurable goal using CCSS
By April 18, 2015, Judith with the use of word walls and
visual reminders will use accurately, grade-appropriate
general academic and domain-specific words and
phrases, including those that signal spatial and
temporal relationship as well as state of being,
85% of the time when participating in a class
discussion or conversations, as measured by language
sample checklist taken during four 30 minute trials by
school staff.
grade level access
target instruction for IEP Goal
Select the Standard
Based on student’s need and grade-level
Eleventh Grade Student who is able to determine the central
idea of text at their reading level and provide supporting
details and is able to orally summarize what they have read.
Strand: Reading for Information - Key Ideas and Details
Standard two:
Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their
development over the course of the text, including how they
interact and build on one another to provide a complex
analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
Label the standard – RI.2.11-12 or 11-12.RI.2
Scaffolding A Standard
• Ninth- Tenth Grade – Determine a central idea of a text and analyze
its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges
and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective
summary of the text.
• Eighth Grade – Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its
development over the course of the text, including its relationship to
supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
• Seventh Grade – Determine two or more central ideas in a text and
analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an
objective summary of the text.
• Sixth Grade – Determine a central idea of a text and how it is
conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text
distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
• Fifth Grade - Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain
how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
Look at the Specific Skills Identified at Each Grade-level
5th - Determine two or more main
ideas of a text and explain how
they are supported by key
details; summarize the text.
6th – Determine a central idea of a
text and how it is conveyed
through particular details;
provide a summary of the text
distinct from personal opinions
or judgments.
7th – Determine two or more
central ideas in a text and
analyze their development over
the course of the text; provide an
objective summary of the text.
8th – 12th: Determine a central idea of a
text and analyze its development over
the course of the text, …... provide an
objective summary of the text.
• 8th - including its relationship to
supporting ideas
• 9th – 10th - including how it
emerges and is shaped and
refined by specific details
• 11th – 12th – 2 or more central
ideas including how they interact
and build on one another to
provide a complex analysis
Write a Measurable Goal Using CCSS
By April 18, 2015, Student will use a graphic organizer
to list out and determine two or more central ideas
and provide an objective, oral summary of the text,
without giving personal opinion but using particular
details from the text, 85% of the time after reading
non-fictional text in all content classes, as measured
by teacher made assignments and assessments.
grade level access
target instruction for IEP Goal
Group Activity
With your table group–
• Practice writing a goal using
the Common Core State
Standards
• Remember to “unpack” the
goal and determine the
“essential understandings”
Therapy
goals
e.g., OT/PT
Equipment
goals
e.g.,
Augmentative
device, PECS
Some needed
goals may not
align to CCSS.
Social/Emotional
and Behavioral
goals
Developed by Gail Angus
Life skills
goals
e.g.
Toileting
California’s Resources
Common Core State Standards
Access CCSS Using Technology
CCSS and Resources
Smarter Balanced Resources
CCSS Resources for Special Education
Alternate Assessment and
Curriculum
https://wiki.ncscpartners.org/mediawiki/index.php/Instructional_Resources

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