GCSE History Revision: Paper 1

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GCSE History Revision: Paper 1
Outline of the Day
9.30-45am Paper 1 Content Overview
9.45-10.45am Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the
Causes of the Second World War
10.45-11.00am BREAK
11.00-12.00 Causes of the FWW
12.00-1.00pm LUNCH
1.00-2.00pm Treaty of Versailles and League of
Nations
2.00-2.15pm BREAK
2.15-3.15pm Exam Technique
Paper 1: Structure and Content
1hr 45mins
The 1st 3
topics…answer
ALL 3!
35mins per
section =
1.5mins/mark
4marks = 6mins
6marks= 9mins
10marks = 15mins
This gives 5mins to
read and plan!!!
Topics you
MUST
answer
Paper 1: Topic 1
Paper 1: Origins of the First World War
Key Question: Why were
 Development of the Triple Alliance, Entente Cordiale and Anglo-Russian
there two armed camps in
Agreement: Britain’s emergence from splendid isolation
Europe in 1914?
 Kaiser Wilhelm II’s aims in foreign policy; Weltpolitik; a “place in the sun”;
attitudes towards Great Britain; development of the Navy
 The Moroccan Crises of 1905 and 1911 and their effects on the alliances
 The Bosnian Crisis 1908-09 and its effects on the alliances
 The arms race – military and naval: why did countries increase the size of
their armies? The Anglo-German Naval Race
Key Question: Why did
 Aims of the Austria-Hungary and Serbia in the Balkans: the role of the Black
war break out in 1914?
Hand




The assassination at Sarajevo: Gavrilo Princip; the response of AustriaHungary; the ultimatum and Serbia’s response
The events leading to war; the role of the alliances in 1914
The Schlieffen Plan and its effects on the outbreak of war; its part in bringing
about Great Britain’s declaration of war on Germany
Responsibility for the outbreak of war and the escalation of the conflict
MAIN causes of the FWW
M
Militarism
A
Alliances
I
Imperialism
N
Nationalism
What were the MAIN causes?
• M - militarism (increasing the size of
your army or navy)
• A – alliances (countries promising to
help each other)
• I – imperialism (powerful countries
wanting to increase their power by
taking other countries)
• N – nationalism (being prepared to fight
THINK
for ones country)
Can you think of any examples of how the main European countries tried to
increase their power?
Alliances
Triple Alliance
1.
2.
3.
Triple Entente
1.
2.
3.
DEFENSIVE ALLIANCES
What is this image linked to?
Sage and Scribe
SCRIBE NAME:
SCRIBE NAME:
Who was King of Germany in 1900?
When was the Triple Alliance signed?
Which countries made up the Triple Alliance? What does “splendid isolationism mean”?
What two things happened that made Britain When was the Entente Cordiale signed?
think about ending it’s policy of “splendid
isolationism”?
Which countries signed the Entente Cordiale? What does Entente Cordiale mean?
What was the German foreign policy called?
(In German or English)
When was the Triple Entente signed?
The Kaiser states
he supports an
independent
Morocco
Kaiser was
humiliated
Germany was
given two marshy
strips of land in the
French Congo
A-H supported
Moroccan
independence
France was given
overall control of
Morocco but not
allowed any
military presence
Germany sent the
gun boat the
Panther to protect
German interests
Brought Europe
close to war
Britain signed a
secret naval
agreement with
France to protect
the north coast
Germany was
annoyed and
humiliated
Germany was
annoyed and
humiliated
Germany wanted to
expand it’s empire
as part of
WELTPOLITIK
Rebellion in Fez
Kaiser visits
Tangier
A conference was
held at Algeciras,
Spain
Britain believed
Wilhelm was trying
to set up a naval
base
Italy opposed
Germany – this
weakened the TA
The Kaiser was
testing the strength
of the Entente
Cordiale
Britain and Russia
supported France
Britain mobilised
France felt more
it’s navy in Gibraltar confident of
Britain’s support
Kaiser visits Tangier
France was given
overall control of
Morocco but not
allowed any
military presence
Morocco
The Kaiser states he
supports an independent
Morocco
Britain and Russia
supported France
Britain believed Wilhelm was
trying to set up a naval base
Germany wanted to
expand it’s empire
as part of
WELTPOLITIK
Britain signed a secret naval
agreement with France to
protect the north coast
The Kaiser was testing the
strength of the Entente Cordiale
A conference was held at Algeciras, Spain
Kaiser was humiliated
Rebellion in Fez
Germany was given two
marshy strips of land in
the French Congo
A-H supported Moroccan
independence
Italy opposed
Germany – this
weakened the TA
Germany sent the gun boat the
Panther to protect German
interests
France felt more
confident of Britain’s
support
Brought Europe close to war
Britain mobilised it’s navy in Gibraltar
Germany was annoyed and humiliated
Where is
this?
ANNEXED = a country is taken and
made part of another empire
Austrian leader
Franz Josef taking
BosniaHerzegovina from
the Turkish Sultan
Bosnia, 1909-09
Bosnian Crisis, 1908-09
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ottoman Empire (Turkish Empire) was breaking up
Serbia wanted to unite all SLAVS – Yugoslavia
Russia and Serbia = allies
Russia called for an international conference to discuss Bosnia
A-H refused to attend
Germany supported A-H because of their support during Morocco
Russia had to back down as it was not ready to fight Germany
Serbia wanted revenge against A-H
Russia was humiliated and now unlikely to back down
A-H had the support of Germany – even if it meant war this was
important in 1914
• Russia became closer to Br and Fr
Arms Race and the First World War:
Increase in Spending
D e fe n c e S p e n d in g , 1 8 7 0 -1 9 1 4
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
£m
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1914
94
130
154
268
289
398
There was a four-fold increase in defence spending of the great
powers, 1870-1914.
Arms Race and the First World War:
This British postcard
interprets Kaiser Wilhelm’s
statement about wanting ‘a
place in the sun’ – it shows
him making everybody in the
world bow down to him.
IMPERIALISM led to an arms race … in 1900, Kaiser Wilhelm said
that GERMANY wanted ‘a place in the sun’ – i.e., that Germany
wanted an empire as big as Britain’s. This TERRIFIED the British.
Arms Race and the First World War:
Attitude towards war
But note that militarism is also a government's attitude of mind, seeing
war as a valid means of foreign policy.
(GERMANY was especially militaristic.)
Arms Race and the First World War:
As well as their STANDING ARMIES, the nations introduced
CONSCRIPTION, so they also had large numbers of trained
RESERVES. All the nations except Britain had HUGE armies.
Arms Race and the First World War:
Navies
If GERMANY was to have an empire, it needed a navy, so in 1900
Admiral Tirpitz introduced the German Navy Law, which announced a
huge programme of building warships.
Arms Race and the First World War:
Navies
Both BRITAIN and GERMANY started building Dreadnoughts – the
most advanced class of warship in the world. The Dreadnought
essentially reduced everybody else’s number of warships to zero.
B u ild in g D re a d n o u g h ts , 1 9 0 6 -1 9 1 4
8
6
4
2
0
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
G erm any
0
0
4
3
1
3
2
3
1
G reat B ritain
1
3
2
2
3
5
3
7
3
Anglo-German Naval Race – Who is
the winner?
Arms Race and the First World War:
T o ta l D re a d n o u g h ts
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914
G erm any
0
0
4
7
8
11
13
16
17
B ritain
1
4
6
8
11
16
19
26
29
In the end, Britain’s built many more Dreadnoughts than Germany.
Naval Race
Arms Race and the First World War:
Effects
The arms race was tied in to both NATIONALISM and IMPERIALISM.
It increased SUSPICION and HATRED of other nations - and it gave
the nations the WHEREWITHAL to wage war.
What event is this?
Assassination
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Where is Sarajevo?
Who was visiting Sarajevo in June 1914?
Why was he visiting Sarajevo?
What was the name of the terrorist group planning to
assassinate him?
When was this group formed?
How many members did this group have by 1914?
What were the aims of this group?
Which country was the group connected to?
What was the name of the assassin?
Assassination
• Where is Sarajevo?Bosnia
• Who was visiting Sarajevo in June 1914?Archduke Franz
Ferdinand
• Why was he visiting Sarajevo?To encourage positive
relations between A-H and the local people
• What was the name of the terrorist group planning to
assassinate him? Black Hand Gang
• When was this group formed?1911
• How many members did this group have by 1914?2,500
• What were the aims of this group? unite all Serbs in to a
greater Serbia
• Which country was the group connected to?Serbia
• What was the name of the assassin? Gavrillo Princip
Steps to War
28th June
Russia offers support to Serbia
6th July
Germany declares war on France; German troops
enter Belgium
23rd July
A-H sends ultimatum to Serbia
24th July
France declares war on Germany
28th July
A-H declares war on Serbia
30th July
Germany promises to support A-H= “blank cheque”
1st August
A-H declares war on Russia
3rd August
Russia mobilises it’s armed forces
4th August
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
5th August
Germany declares war on Belgium; Britain declares
war on Germany
6th August
Germany declares war on Russia
Details…
• Name the Count who wanted to go to war with
Serbia
• How many points did A-H send Serbia in their
ultimatum?
• Which point did Serbia not agree too?
• Why?
• What was the German plan of attack called?
• What was it designed to avoid?
• What was the treaty with Belgium called?
• When was it signed?
Details…
• Name the Count who wanted to go to war with Serbia.
Count Hotzendorf
• How many points did A-H send Serbia in their
ultimatum? 10points
• Which point did Serbia not agree too?point 6
• Why? Gave A-H control of Serbia’s court system
• What was the German plan of attack called?Schlieffen
Plan
• What was it designed to avoid?A war on two fronts
(sides)
• What was the treaty with Belgium called?Treaty of
London
• When was it signed? 1839
Schlieffen Plan
Effect of the SP
• Britain had no intention of supporting Russia
• Would have been difficult for Britain to
convince the people to go to war over France
• BELGIUM = opportunity
• 1839 – Treaty of London = “scrap of paper” by
the Kaiser
• British people shocked by German aggression
towards a small country like Belgium!
Which country was responsible for war?
Country
Responsibility
France
The French were determined to get revenge on Germany
for defeat in 1871 and their attempts to expand in to
Morocco.
Britain
The British took part in the naval race and supported
France during the Moroccan Crises; it also declared war on
Germany in August 1914
Russia
Tsar (King of Russia) fully supported Serbia
Germany
Weltpolitik threatened Britain and France
A-H
A-H was determined to crush Serbia
Serbia
Serbia was determined to create a Greater Serbia and the
BHG assassinated Franz Ferdinand
Paper 1: Topic 2
Paper 1: Peacemaking 1918-19 and the League of Nations
Key Question: How did the
 The Paris Peace Conference; the aims of Clemenceau, Lloyd George and
Treaty of Versailles establish
Woodrow Wilson: the Fourteen Points
peace?
 The main terms of the Treaty of Versailles; Diktat; territorial changes;
military restrictions, war guilt and reparations
 The strengths and weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles: Why Germany
objected to it
Key Question: Why did the
 Membership 1919-39: why and how it changed; implications for the
League of Nations fail in its
League of Nations
aims to keep peace?
 Organisation, powers and peace keeping role: the Assembly; the Council;
the Permanent Court of Justice; military and economic sanctions



The Manchurian Crisis 1931-33: events; actions taken by the League;
effect on the League as a peacekeeping force
The Abyssinian Crisis 1935-36: events; action taken by the League; effect
on the League as a peacekeeping force
The reasons for the collapse of the League
Who’s Who?
Who’s Who? What did they want?
______________________
_____________________
______________________
Characters
Personal Aims
Georges
Clemenceau
David Lloyd
George
Woodrow
Wilson
Aims of the Nation the Represent
Cripple Germany’s
economy
Prevent future threats
from Germany
Germany should be
punished but not too
harshly
A harsh treaty might
lead to another war
Make Germany suffer
Self-determination
International
cooperation
– League of
Nations
Britain and
Germany
to trade in
the future
Cripple Germany’s
economy
Prevent future threats
from Germany
International
cooperation
– League of
Nations
Germany should be
punished but not too
harshly
Self-determination
Britain and
Germany
to trade in
the future
A harsh treaty might
lead to another war
Treaty of Versailles
Maths Challenge
Question 1
A. How many soldiers were the German army
allowed under the Terms of the Treaty of
Versailles? Write the answer down.
B. Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George made
up the Big Who? Write the answer down.
• Multiple these two answers. Now write the
answer to question 1 down.
Question 2
A. How many battleships was Germany allowed
under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Write the answer down.
B. How many points did Wilson have? Write the
answer down.
C. What number was the War Guilt Clause?
Write the answer down.
• Multiple these three answers. Write the
answer for question 2 down.
Question 3
A. Subtract the question 2 answer from
your question 1 answer.
• Now write the answer to question 3
down.
Question 4
A. How many years were there between the
Treaty of Versailles being signed and the
time the reparations figure was set?
Write the answer down.
B. How many years was the Saar region to be
given to France? Write the answer down.
• Multiple these two answers. Now write
the answer to question 4 down.
Question 5
A. Add the answer from question 3 with
the answer to question 4.
• Now write the answer to question 5
down.
Question 6
A. To the nearest year – how many years
did the First World War last? Write
the answer down.
• Write the answer to question 6 down.
Question 7
A. Add the answer from question 5 with
the answer to question 6.
• Now write the answer to question 7
down.
Question 8
A. What time did the Armistice ceasefire
begin on 11th November 1918? Write
the answer down.
B. Write the answer to question 8
down.
Question 9
A. Subtract the question 8 answer from
your question 7 answer.
• Your solution is:
Solution
280619
Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June 1919 – 28/06/19
Treaty of Versailles_______
Land
TofV
Military
Guilt and
Compensation
Treaty of Versailles 28th June 1919
Danzig=Free City
Alsace-Lorraine=France
North Schleswig=Denmark
Land
Colonies =
mandates
West Prussia and Posen = Poland
Anschluss forbidden
Rhineland demilitarised
TofV
Saarland = LoN for 15 years
Article 231=War guilt
clause
No conscription
Military
Army limited to
100,000
No subs or
aircraft
6 battleships
Guilt and
Compensation
Young Plan
1929
£6.6billion
set in 1921
Pay until 1984!
Was it fair?
Yes it was fair…
No it was not fair…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
British and French casualties=9million
750,000 homes destroyed
Britain=£1billion in debt to USA
Food shortages
Devastation in Belgium and France
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: 34%pop; 54%
industry; 89% coalmines
Treaties – St Germain (Austris)=lost
Bosnia, Herzegovinian and Croatia;
restiricted army to 30,000.
Neuilly(Bulgaria)=Lost land to Greece
and Yugoslavia; Armed forced limited to
20,000; £100million in reparations.
Trianon (Hungary) = Lost land to
Romania, Czechoslovakia and
Yugoslavia; lost 3 million people to
other states; due to pay reparations.
Sevres (Turkey) = Lost land to Greece
other land became a LofN mandates;
Palestine.
•
•
•
•
•
10% of land
All colonies
12.5% population
50% of iron and steel
industries
War guilt clause
No German representative
Economy in ruins
Army restrictions too small
German people split up
Strengths and Weaknesses of the TofV
Strengths
Weaknesses
Brought peace to Europe
Germany was left very unhappy
Fairer that other treaties – A-H was
divided
Germany could not afford to make
reparation payments
Germany had imposed a much harsher
treaty on Russia (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in
1918)
The treaty did not punish Germany
enough to stop her seeking revenge
Wilson put too much faith in the loN
TASK: For each of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, say whether you
think its main aim was:
Do you think this term was fair/unfair/unsure? Explain your
answer.
  
Germany had to pay £6,600 million, called reparations, for the
damage done during the war.
Germany forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could
have a navy of only 6 battleships.
Germany lost land in Europe
Germany could only have an army of 100,000 men.
Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.
Germany was split in two so that the newly created Poland could
have access to the sea.
Alsace-Lorraine given back to France.
Germany could never unite with Austria
Demilitarised the Rhineland - Germany was not allowed to place any
troops in the Rhineland, the strip of land, 50 miles wide, next to
France.
War Guilt: Germany had to accept the blame for starting the war.
Germany could not join the League of Nations.
The League of Nations
Membership of the League
Britain
Italy
1933
Germany
1933
USSR
1934
USA
1919
1929
1939
Membership of the League
France
Britain
Italy
1937
Japan
1933
Germany
1933
1926
USSR
USA
1934
NEVER JOINED
1919
1929
1939
Covenant
• 26 rules (articles)
• Registration of all treaties to avoid secret
alliances
• Reduction of arms so no future arms race
• Collective security to solve problems
The League of Nations
Encourage
co-operation
Stop aggression
AIMS
Disarmament
Improve
social conditions
Structure
The Assembly
Each country one vote
Permanent court of
International Justice
Based at The Hague
Settle disputes peacefully
No power of enforcement
The Council
Met several times a year
and in emergencies
5 permanent members
Each had right to veto any idea
The Secretariat
Kept records - civil service
What event is this source commenting
on?
What is the message of this cartoon?
List the key events of the Manchurian crisis and explain how they show the
failure of the League.
List the key events of the Manchurian crisis and explain how they show the
failure of the League.
September 1931 - Railway
attacked in Japanese
controlled Manchuria
Italy was putting it’s own interests first. Invading Manchuria
in order to tackle problems brought on by the Depression of
the 1930s.
February 1932 – Manchukuo China appealed to the LofN. Japan said it was solving a local
– Japan set up a puppet
problem and acted in this way as a form of self-defence.
government in Manchuria
September 1932 – Lytton
Report states that Japan
acted unlawfully
The LofN sent an official to investigate Japan’s claims of selfdefence. The Report took 12mths to compile. The report
was approved 42 votes to 1…Japan being the one!
February 1933 – Japan
invades the rest of
Manchuria
Despite the LofN stating that Japan had done wrong nothing
was done! Japan continued to expand on the same principle
of self-defence. Economic sanctions were not an option as
the USA was it’s main trading partner. Also Britain did not
want to risk it’s colonies in SE Asia by upsetting Japan. It was
too far away to start a war over.
March 1933 – Japan
withdrew from the League
and invades Jehol province
The League was powerless. The League did not have the
resources to remove Japan by force. Aggressive behaviour
wins!
Abyssinia - Timeline
December 1934
October 1935
December 1935
May 1936
1937
Abyssinia - Timeline
December 1934
Italian troops provoke a clash at Wal Wal
October 1935
Italian invasion begins
December 1935
Britain and France produce Hoare-Laval Plan. Large parts of
Abyssinia to be given to Italy in return for Italian withdrawal.
Public outcry- plan abandoned
May 1936
Haile Selassie was forced in to exile and the Italian conquest
complete
November 1936
Rome-Berlin Axis signed
1937
Italy withdraws from the League
Manchurian and Abyssinian Crises
CAUSES
Manchurian
Crisis
Abyssinian
Crisis
EVENTS
EFFECTS ON THE LEAGUE
Abyssinia was the only
independent Africa
country in that area
Wall Street Crash in
1929 meant that Japan
lost trade with the USA.
Japan invaded the next
province Jehol
Manchuria was rich in
natural resources
China appealed to the
League for help.
Lytton Commission was
set up to investigate
Chinese soldiers were
accused of blowing up
part of the Japanese
railway
The League condemned
the actions of Japan and
told Japan to leave the
area.
The League encouraged
aggressive actions from
Germany and Italy
Well at WalWal were
attacked. Italy invaded.
Mussolini wanted to
increase Italy’s power
Haile Selassie appealed
to the League for help
Italy wanted revenge for
defeat in 1896
The League had failed to
deal effectively with
Japan
The League imposed
sanctions on glass,
rubber and weapons
Britain and France were
not willing to support
the League by providing
an army
Britain and France tried
to get Italy to agree to
the Hoare-Laval Pact –
this would give Italy 2/3
of Abyssinia
League members were
not willing to stop
aggressive countries
Britain and France were
undermining the League
The League was no
longer taken seriously
Manchurian
Crisis
CAUSES
EVENTS
EFFECTS ON THE
LEAGUE
Wall Street Crash in 1929
meant that Japan lost trade
with the USA.
China appealed to the League for
help.
Britain and France were not
willing to support the League
by providing an army
Manchuria was rich in natural
resources
Lytton Commission was set up to
investigate
The League had failed to deal
effectively with Japan
Japan invaded the next province Jehol
Chinese soldiers were accused
of blowing up part of the
Japanese railway
Abyssinian
Crisis
Abyssinia was the only
independent Africa country in
that area
Mussolini wanted to increase
Italy’s power
Italy wanted revenge for
defeat in 1896
Well at WalWal were
attacked. Italy invaded.
The League condemned the actions of
Japan and told Japan to leave the
area.
Haile Selassie appealed to the League
for help
Britain and France tried to get Italy to
agree to the Hoare-Laval Pact – this
would give Italy 2/3 of Abyssinia
The League imposed sanctions on
glass, rubber and weapons
The League encouraged
aggressive actions from
Germany and Italy
League members were not
willing to stop aggressive
countries
Britain and France were
undermining the League
The League was no longer
taken seriously
Questions on the League
Economic depression
Abyssinia/Manchuria
Germany/Italy/Japan
Organisation
Why did
it fail?
Britain/France
Aims
Powers
USSR/USA
The league of nations failed because
it…
The League did not have any real power. Apart from shame,
Weak
sanctions didn’t work and it did not have it’s own army.
America
The strongest nation after the First World War never joined.
Structure
The League’s organisation was disorganised so it took a long time
to do anything. Members couldn’t agree but decisions had to be
unanimous.
Depression
World-wide depression causes countries to look for more land
and power. Countries were more worried about themselves and
not world peace.
Unsuccessful
The more the League failed the more people mistrusted it. In the
end countries just ignored it.
Members
Big bullies
The League’s main members let it down.
The League showed it could deal with smaller countries in the
1920s. However when powerful countries like Germany, Italy and
Japan defied the League the League was too weak to stop them
TASK: Find an example to support each of these reasons.
Weak
The League did not have any real power.
Apart from shame, sanctions didn’t work
and it did not have it’s own army.
America
The strongest nation after the First World
War never joined.
Structure
The League’s organisation was disorganised
so it took a long time to do anything.
Members couldn’t agree but decisions had
to be unanimous.
Depression
World-wide depression causes countries to
look for more land and power. Countries
were more worried about themselves and
not world peace.
Unsuccessful The more the League failed the more
people mistrusted it. In the end countries
just ignored it.
Members
The League’s main members let it down.
Big bullies
The League showed it could deal with
smaller countries in the 1920s. However
when powerful countries like Germany, Italy
and Japan defied the League the League
was too weak to stop them
•Source B
A cartoon in Punch, a British magazine, 28 July 1920. The rabbit is saying
‘I don’t have
any weapons (I am practically defenceless) so I must defeat him with a
powerful stare’.
•Source B
A cartoon in Punch, a British magazine, 28 July 1920. The rabbit is saying
‘I don’t have
any weapons (I am practically defenceless) so I must defeat him with a
powerful stare’.
Study Source B.
Source B explains one of the weaknesses of the League of Nations in 1920.
Do you agree that the lack of an armed force was the main weakness of the League of Nations when it was
set up in 1920?
Explain your answer by referring to the purpose of the source, as well as using its content and your
knowledge. (6 marks)
Paper 1: Topic 3
Paper 1: Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Origins of the Second World War
Key Question: How did Hitler

challenge and exploit the Treaty 
of Versailles 1933-March 1938? 
Hitler’s aims in foreign policy
The return of the Saar, 1935
The beginning of rearmament in Germany; withdrawal from the
Disarmament Conference 1933; non-aggression pact with Poland 1934;
reintroduction of conscription from 1935; Anglo-German Naval Agreement
1935

The remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936

Anschluss with Austria 1938
Key Question: Why did

Chamberlain's policy of

appeasement fail to prevent the 
outbreak of war in 1939?

Reasons for and against appeasement
The Sudeten Crisis and Munich Agreement, 1938
The collapse of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
The role of the USSR 1938-39: the Nazi-Soviet Pact

Poland and the outbreak of war

Responsibility for the outbreak of war
How did Hitler challenge and exploit the Treaty of Versailles
1933-March 1938?
• Hitler’s aims in foreign policy
• The return of the Saar, 1935
• The beginning of rearmament in Germany;
withdrawal from the Disarmament Conference
1933; non-aggression pact with Poland 1934;
reintroduction of conscription from 1935; AngloGerman Naval Agreement 1935
• The remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936
• Anschluss with Austria 1938
Timeline
1933
Germany leaves the League of Nations
Jan 1934
Hitler signs 10yr non-aggression pact with Poland
July 1934
Mussolini prevents Anschluss with Austria
Jan 1935
Saar returned to Germany
April 1935
Stresa Front formed
June 1935
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
October 1935
Mussolini invades Abyssinia
March 1936
Rhineland remilitarised
October 1936
Rome-Berlin Axis
1936-39
Spanish Civil War
May 1937
Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister – APPEASEMENT
March 1938
Anschluss with Austria
September 1938
Munich Conference
March 1939
Collapse of Czechoslovakia
August 1939
Nazi-Soviet Pact
September 1939
Attack on Poland and the outbreak of WWII
Timeline
1933
Jan 1934
Hitler signs 10yr non-aggression pact with Poland
July 1934
Mussolini prevents Anschluss with Austria
Saar returned to Germany
April 1935
June 1935
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
October 1935
Mussolini invades Abyssinia
Rhineland remilitarised
October 1936
Rome-Berlin Axis
1936-39
Spanish Civil War
May 1937
Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister – APPEASEMENT
March 1938
Munich Conference
Collapse of Czechoslovakia
August 1939
September 1939
Attack on Poland and the outbreak of WWII
1919, Treaty of Versailles = Germany
“stabbed in the back”
Hitler’s Aims
This is what he SAID
he wanted, now let’s
see what he actually
did.
Unite all German speaking people in one single
country.
Hitler’s Aims
Put right all the harm the Treaty Of Versailles has
done to Germany and make Germany great
again.
Get lebensraum [living space] for all the
Germany people. We need colonies and land to
house our huge population.
This is what he SAID
he wanted, now let’s
see what he actually
did.
Hitler’s Aims
“It was necessary for us [the
Nazi Party] to dig ourselves into
the minds of the people as the
enemies of the peace treaties so
that the people give us their
confidence.” MEIN KAMPF, 1923
This is what he SAID
he wanted, now let’s
see what he actually
• What does this source mean?
did.
• Which parts of the treaty would he want to reverse to gain support?
How did Hitler plan to achieve these aims?
• Take back land lost
• Bring the 7million
German speakers in
Austria and 4 million
in Czechoslovakia and
Poland in to his
empire
• Build up the armed
forces to make
Germany great again
• Expand in the east
and destroy
Communism
10yr Non-Aggression Pact
Rearmament
German Foreign
Policy 1933-35
Failed Anschluss
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
German Foreign
Policy 1933-35
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1932 – Disarmament Conference
France= never disarm
1933 – Hitler withdrew from Conference
1935 –Gr introduced conscription
1935 – Br, Fr & It = Stresa Front against Germany
TofV= unfair
FR = not act alone
• 1934 - Germany and
Poland signed a 10yr
non-aggression pact
• Hitler promised not to
take Polish corridor
• Pleased Britain
German Foreign
Policy 1933-35
• 1934 – Austrian Nazi Party encouraged to
rebel
• Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss killed
• Mussolini moved army to Austria to
prevent Hitler from achieving Anschluss
• Hitler not strong enough so backed down
• 1935 – Britain pleased with Hitler
• Germany navy limited to 35% of
British navy
• Britain agreed to German
rearmament
• Br acted without Fr or It
• 1938 = 800,000 men; 47 u-boats;
2,000 aircraft
Saar
What were the terms of the TofV?
• Under control of LofN for 15yrs
• France allowed to taker coal
during that time
• 15 years a PLEBISCITE – LofN or
Germany?
Saar Plebiscite
• 90% to reunite with Germany
• LEGAL reversal of the TofV
Rhineland
Rhineland, March 1936
Describe
•
•
•
•
Explain
•
•
•
•
Assess
•
•
•
•
7th March 1936
Germany in to the Rhineland
Broke the TofV and Locarno Pact
League condemned the action
German troops told to retreat if confronted
Br & Fr more concerned with Mussolini and Abyssinia
Fr = not prepared to act without Br
Br = Hitler not doing anything wrong – “marching on to his own
backyard”
• No one wanted war
• Br = TofV unfair
Hitler = reversed TofV = confidence
Hitler = more popular in Germany
Rome-Berlin Axis (fascists working together)
Failure of the LofN to keep peace
ANSCHLUSS = UNION WITH AUSTRIA
Unite all
German
speakers
Rumours
of Nazi
plot to
overthrow
Austrian
Gov
Schuschni
gg =
appeal to
Hitler for
help
SeyssInquart =
Min of
Interior =
in charge
of the
police
Riots by
Austrian
Nazis =
not
stopped
by police
Schuschnig
g=
PLEBISCITE
to decide
whether to
join with
Germany
Hitler =
troops to
border,
called for
Schuschni
gg to
resign
Br&Fr
did
nothing
SeyssInquart
=
Chancellor
Germans
invited to
restore
order
Austrian Plebiscite, April 1938
• 80,000 opponents arrested and put in
concentration camps
• April = plebiscite
• 99.75% - YES vote for NAZIS
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LofN = not consulted
Br = TofV too harsh
Br = feared communism more
Austria = resources for Hitler to use
TofV = reversal
Hitler = more confident
Germany = land on 3 sides of the Sudetenland
Austrians welcomed Germany
Why did Chamberlain's policy of appeasement
fail to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939?
FOR APPEASEMENT
AGAINST APPEASEMENT
Why did Chamberlain's policy of appeasement
fail to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939?
FOR APPEASEMENT
AGAINST APPEASEMENT
Avoid a war at all costs
Hitler could not be trusted – broken
promises since 1933
Depression
Britain looked weak and encouraged
Hitler
League of Nations had failed
Betrayed countries protected by the TofV
Communism feared more than fascism
Hitler increased strength and power
Sudetenland, 1938
Why did Hitler want the Sudetenland?
• Unite all German speaking people = 3million
in the Sudetenland
• Czech government accused of treating
German speakers unfairly
• Henlein = Czech Nazi campaigned for
independence from Czech
Munich Agreement
Met at
Bertesg
aden,
near
Munich
Hitler
demands
the
Sudetenl
and
Areas
with
50%+
German
s to
German
y
Czechs
&Franc
e agree
Meeting
at
Godesber
g
Hitler
makes
new
demands
- land to
Poland
and
Hungary
Britain
rejects
demands
– war
preparatio
ns begin
Munich
= Gr, Br,
Fr, It
Sudetenlan
d to Hitler
Importance of the Munich Agreement
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hitler = Sudetenland without fighting
Czechoslovakia betrayed
Peace preserved
Czechoslovakia = vulnerable to invasion
Germany = more resources
Britain speeded up rearmament
USSR felt left out and betrayed
Czechoslovakia
• Munich Agreement = break up of
Czechoslovakia
• October&November 1938 = Poland&Hungary
gained land from Czechoslovakia
• March 1939 = Slovaks press for independence
too!
• Hitler marches in to Czechoslovakia to restore
order
• Br&Fr protested but did not directly oppose!
Result
End of appeasement
Hitler could not be trusted
Memel (Lithuania) back to Germany
Br&Fr signed an agreement to protect Poland
Britain guaranteed the independence of Romania and Greece
Hitler withdrew from the 10yr non-aggression pact with Poland
and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement
Rank
What event?
What event?
Nazi-Soviet Pact
When?
Who?
Nazi
Soviet
Pact
What?
Why?
When?
August, 1939
Why?
Who?
Ribbentrop =
Germany &
Molotov= Russia
Nazi
Soviet
Pact
Stalin prepare USSR for future
attack
Stalin unhappy with Br&Fr
leaving him out of Munich
Stalin= Br and Fr using
Germany against USSR
Hitler avoided a war on 2 fronts
Br&Fr lost a possible ally
What?
Not to fight against
each other in the
event of war
Secret agreement
to divide Poland
Invasion of Poland
• April 1939 = Hitler
demands Danzig
• Believed Br and Fr
wouldn’t go to war over
Danzig
• 3rd September 1939 =
Br declared war on
Germany
1st September 1939
Recap…
Put the following events in
chronological order
Munich Agreement
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
The retaking of the Saar
Czechoslovakia
Invasion of Poland
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Rearmament
Anschluss (2nd attempt)
Rhineland
Responsible for war…?
EVENT
Rearmament
Anglo-German Naval Agreement
The retaking of the Saar
Rhineland
Anschluss (2nd attempt)
Munich Agreement
Czechoslovakia
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Invasion of Poland
SCORE
International History, 1900-49
Test yourself
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Which British Prime Minister is most closely associated with appeasement?
Name three countries that were appeased by Britain in the 1930s.
In which year did Japan invade Manchuria?
How large an army was Germany restricted to by the Treaty of Versailles?
Which African state was invaded by Italy in 1935?
Why did Britain try to turn a blind-eye to Mussolini's aggressive foreign policy in
1935?
7. In which war did both Germany and Italy support the fascist dictator General
Franco?
8. Which clause of the Treaty of Versailles was broken by Germany in 1936?
9. Which country became part of Germany after the Anschluss of 1938?
10.What was the name of the largely German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia?
11.Who was the leader of the Sudeten Germans?
12.Essentially what was agreed to at the Munich Conference of 1938?
13.Which Polish port was claimed by Germany in 1939?
14.Which agreement between Germany and Russia prevented Russia from declaring
war on Germany in 1939?
15.What is the German word for the eastward expansion of Germany's frontiers in the
1930s and 40s which aimed to provide new lands for the German people?
16.Why was Britain reluctant to formalise a defensive alliance with Russia in the
1930s?
Know what
each
question is
about
4 marks
6 marks
10 marks
Exam Technique
4 mark questions
• Based on simple knowledge
• Need to be more than just bullet points
• You need to describe (use knowledge to
show) what is happening
• E.g.
• Think about what the league tried to do
• Explain what they did
So…
• Firstly the League of Nations tried to
P
L2-2
solve the AbyssinianEvcrisis by...
– This was where...
Ex L2-3
– This would help solve the crisis because...
P
• Secondly the
League tried to solve the
Ev
Abyssinian crisis by...
Ex
L3-4
– This was where...
– This would help solve the crisis because...
6 mark
questions
• You Must
use the
source
• You must
use your
knowledg
e
So…
• Firstly I agree with the content of
the
L2-2
source as it shows ...
P
Ev
Ex
L3-4/5
– This tells me that...
– (In addition this source was made by...which...)
• HOWEVER, I also
disagree
P
Ev with theEx
source from my own knowledge...
L4- 2 sides
– I know that the League was also weak
because...
• In conclusion…
L4-6
– Make a link, bring something new- develop
your conclusion
10 mark questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dead easy to get good marks!
Mini essay question
It tells you what to talk about
PEE to be used
Argue one side
Then the other
Good conclusion to get top marks
Use this grid to help you!!!
Assess
Explain
Describe
On the one hand
On the other hand
Assess
Explain
(Conclusion)
Describe
Use this grid to help you!!!
On the one hand
On the other hand
Land that Germany lost
• Danzig
• Saar
• Colonies
Reparations enormous
• 6.6 billion
Why Germany hated this
• 12.5% of pop
• 10% of land
• Industrial areas
• Pride
• strength
Why Germany hated this
• Economic collapse- WWI
• War guilt unfair
• Not agreed until 1921
• Punishing the wrong
government
Impact on the economy
Harder to recover
Can’t make reparations payments
led to 1923 Ruhr and hyper
inflation
Humiliation- troops in Ruhr
How do they link? Which is
most important?
Assess
Explain
(Conclusion)
Describe
Use this grid to help you!!!
On the one hand
On the other hand
Land that Germany lost
• Danzig
L1-1
• Saar
• Colonies
Reparations enormous
• 6.6 billion
Why Germany hated this
• 12.5% of pop
L2-3/5
• 10% of land
• Industrial areas
• Pride
• strength
Why Germany hated this
• Economic collapse- WWI
• War guilt unfair
• Not agreed until 1921
L3-6/8
• Punishing the wrong
government
Impact on the economy
Humiliation- troops in Ruhr
Harder to recover
How do they link? Which is
Can’t make reparations payments most important?
led to 1923 Ruhr and hyper
L4-9/10
inflation
Examination Question
Which was the more important as a reason for
the failure of the League of Nations
• The Manchurian Crisis, 1931-32
• The Abyssinian Crisis, 1935-36?
Answering the question
Introduction:
• Which crisis do you think was the more serious?
Main Body:
• Describe the two crises briefly (remember beginning,
middle and the end)
• Explain why you believe one was more important.
Conclusion:
• The ________________was more important because
it led to……

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