CM Bootcamp for New Teachers

Report
Classroom Management
Boot Camp for New Teachers!
Regina M. Oliver, Ph.D., BCBA-D & Troy Baker
Advanced Organizer
• Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and
Behavior Intervention Support Teams (BIST) Overview
• Why is Classroom Management Important?
• Effective Classroom Management
• Principles of Behavior
• Student-Teacher Relationships
• How to Access Help in your Building
BIST Main Components
Behavioral Intervention Support Team
2 School-wide Rules
3 Life Skills
Grace and Accountability
Early Intervention
Triage
2 School-wide Rules
It’s never OK to be disruptive.
It’s never OK to be hurtful.
Three Life Skills
I can have an uncomfortable feeling and
not get in trouble.
I can be OK even if others are not.
I can do something even when I don’t
want to.
What students need to change:
Grace
and
Accountability
Grace is:
Giving Responsibility and Accountability to
Children in Education
Providing what students need, “You’re too
important to let you behave this way.”
Having a relationship when students reject
you
Having the courage to hold students
accountable
Grace is not:
Being permissive, that’s enabling
Lowering standards
Giving more chances
Rigid, but there are clear boundaries
Accountability is:
Guiding students to look at what
problem the behaviors create in the
students’ lives and how they can
develop the 3 life skills
Providing consequences to protect
them and a plan to practice missing
skills
Waiting for students to partner with
adults
Accountability is not:
Using anger to get to compliance
Punishing students
Withholding attention, the relationship
is a means to accountability
Lecturing kids
The 5 Steps to Accountability:
I did it.
I’m sorry.
It’s part of a problem in my life.
I accept the consequences.
I accept and need help.
Four Questions the Adult
Community Must Answer
What does the student’s repetitious
behavior tell us s/he can’t manage?
What restrictions does s/he need based
on what s/he can’t manage?
What skill do we need to teach them while
s/he is restricted?
What will the integration process from
restrictions to no restrictions look like?
Discussion Questions
How do you feel about GRACE and
ACCOUNTABILITY? What information
do you need?
Do you feel that the students can reach all
5 Steps to Accountability?
What are the purposes of restrictions?
What should restrictions look like at
Everett? What shouldn’t they look like?
Early Intervention
Stop the behavior when you see it, don’t
wait until you feel it.
Be intrusive
Deal with “Gateway Behaviors”
What good classroom managers do all
the time (proximity, the evil eye, etc.)
Gateway Behaviors
What are the gateway behaviors that you
see in your classroom? On the
playground? In the hallways? In the
cafeteria?
What classroom management techniques
do you use to stop them?
Three Levels of Triage
Building level
Classroom level
Individual or small group
Building Triage
Arrange supervision so every child is
greeted.
The best way to keep problems out of the
building is through personal contact.
Classroom Triage
A quick glance at the class.
Teachers already do this, but we need to be
consistent and intentional.
It takes 5-7 minutes
Be sure to include a way to know how students
are doing emotionally.
Individual Triage
Designed as a proactive measure to meet
individual student needs.
Increase relationships for student within
the building.
Develop student’s skills to identify feelings
and problem-solve.
Can be prior to the start of the day and/or
throughout the day.
Caring Confrontation
What do you think of when you hear the
word confrontation?
Confrontation is frequently associated
with negative emotions
Never confront with anger
We want to use language that will allow
the student to partner with us as we strive
towards change and growth.
Caring Confrontation
Use phrases that focus on the student
“I see… (disruptive behavior)”
“Can you… (desired behavior)”
“Even though… (student’s feeling)”
Practice these at your table…
Placement Continuum
Regular Seat
Safe Seat
Buddy Room
Recovery
Office
Home
DECIDE WHERE THEY GO BASED ON WHERE
THE ACTING OUT STOPS.
Processing
Build relationship--”How are you?”
Find out what happened-- “Can you tell me what happened?”
Identify the missing skill-- “Sounds like you weren’t OK when...”
Validate-- “I would be mad too if…”
Connect the feeling to the behavior-- “What did you do when you
were mad?”
Set standard and goal-- “At this school it’s never going to be OK to
…”
Plan to manage the missing skill--”Next time you’re mad, what will
you say/do? Where will you go? Who will you talk to?”
Practice
Guide an Apology & Restitution
Processing
Processing always goes back to the 3 Life
Skills:
I can have an uncomfortable feeling and not get in
trouble.
I can be OK even if others are not.
I can do something even when I don’t want to.
How students move through the
continuum…
Moving to the safe seat
Moving to the buddy room
Moving to recovery (what and where is
recovery)
Key is Building Relationships
with Students
We do this through:
Triage
Closure for students (handshake, goodbye,
high five, hug, etc)
What else? Brainstorm and share ways that
you build relationships in your classroom.
What is PBiS?
The purpose of sch
●
STUDENTS
•
5%
•
5-10%
•
80-90%
PBiS is not...
➢a specific practice or curriculum…it’s a
general approach to preventing problem
behavior
➢limited to any particular group of
students…it is for all students
➢new…its based on long history of
behavioral practices & effective
instructional design & strategies
Three Tier Prevention Model
Logic
•Primary/Universal interventions
implemented with ALL to prevent
inappropriate behavior
•Secondary/Targeted interventions
implemented with SOME to reverse
inappropriate behavior patterns
•Tertiary/Individualized interventions
implemented with a FEW to reduce
harmful effects of severe behavior
Multi-Tiered Systems of Support
Academic
Systems
Behavioral Systems
Intensive, Individual Interventions
•Individual Students
•Assessment-based
•High Intensity
1-5%
Targeted Group
Interventions
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
Universal Interventions
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
5-10%
80-90%
1-5%
Intensive, Individual Interventions
•Individual Students
•Assessment-based
•Intense, durable procedures
5-10%
Targeted Group Interventions
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
80-90%
Universal Interventions
•All settings, all students
•Preventive, proactive
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Why is Classroom Management
Important?
• Single most common request for assistance from
teachers is related to behavior and classroom
management (Rose & Gallup, 2005)
• School discipline issues such as disruptive
classroom behavior increase teacher stress and
burnout (Burke, Greenglass, & Schwarzer, 1996; Smith & Smith,
1996)
• One of the top reasons teachers leave the
profession
Insufficient Classroom
Management Competencies
• Higher rates of discipline problems in the
classroom (Berliner, 1986; Espin & Yell, 1994)
• Lost instructional time and decreased academic
engagement (Gunter et al., 1993)
• Teachers find it more challenging to meet the
instructional demands of the classroom (Emmer &
Stough, 2001)
• Teachers will be less effective in improving
student outcomes in academics (Tooke, 1997)
Prevention Efforts
• Children’s behavior is shaped by the social
context of the environment during the
developmental process
• The progression and malleability of maladaptive
behavior is affected by classroom management
practices of teachers in the early grades
(Greer-Chase et al., 2002)
• Aggressive students in aggressive, disruptive
classroom environments are more likely to be
aggressive in later grades (Greer-Chase et al., 2002)
Apply the 3-Tiered Model to Your
Classroom
Effective Classroom
Management Plans
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Daily Schedule
Physical Organization
Class Rules
Class Routines
Managing Student Work
Accommodating Diversity
Collecting Data and Adjusting Plan
Evidence Based Practices in
Classroom Management
1. Maximize structure
2. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a
small number of positively stated expectations
3. Actively engage students in observable ways.
4. Establish a continuum of strategies to
acknowledge appropriate behavior
5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to
inappropriate behavior.
(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008)
1. Maximize structure in your
classroom
•
Develop Predictable Routines
• Teacher routines: volunteers, communications,
movement, planning, grading, etc.
• Student routines: personal needs, transitions,
working in groups, independent work, instruction,
getting, materials, homework, etc.
•
Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate
behavior and (b) minimize crowding and
distraction:
•
•
•
•
Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow.
Ensure adequate supervision of all areas.
Designate staff & student areas.
Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)
Classroom Physical Arrangement
• Visibility
• Teacher see students at all times
• Students see teacher, instructional materials, and displays
• Accessibility
• Teacher movement and access to all students
• Students and teacher easily access materials
• Keep high traffic areas free of congestion
• Distractibility
• Students seated away from obvious distractors
• Separate disruptive students
Evertson & Harris (2003)
2.
Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and
reinforce a small number of positively
stated expectations.
•Establish behavioral expectations/rules.
•Teach rules in context of routines.
•Prompt or remind students of rule prior to
entering natural context.
•Monitor students’ behavior in natural
context & provide specific feedback.
•Evaluate effect of instruction - review data,
make decisions, & follow up.
A Little Clarification About
Expectations and Rules…
SW Expectations
Class Expectations
Classroom Rules
(Behavioral Examples of
Expectations)
CHAMPS
helps
with this
Expectations
for Routines
Establishing Expectations
Expectations/Rules
• expected norms of behavior
• Function: to prevent or
encourage certain behaviors
• Rules are limited in number
and do not change
Routines
• ways of getting classroom
activities completed
• Function: to establish routines
for predictability, reducing
problem behavior, and saving
time
• Procedures are unlimited in
number and may change
Classroom Expectations vs.
Classroom Rules
• Expectations: behaviors expected of all
students and staff in all settings
• Rules: specific skills you want students to
exhibit and the procedures you want students
to follow in specific settings
Similarities Between
Expectations and Rules
• Both should be positively stated – tell
students what you want them to do
• Both should be limited in number
• Both should line up with your school’s
school-wide expectations
• Both will clarify criteria for success
Rules within Routines Matrix
Routines
Entering
Classroom
Expectations
Be Safe
Be
Respectful
Be
Responsible
•
Rules
Seat Work
Small Group
Activity
Leaving
Classroom
Develop a Plan for Teaching
Students to Engage in Routines
Conversation: How much & what type?
Help: How do they let you know they need it?
Activity: What is it? How long should it take?
Movement: How and when can students
move?
Participation: How will students be active and
show engagement?
onversation
• What does it sound like?
• Can they engage in conversations?
• How loud? How will you judge this? (Zone
system?)
elp
•
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•
•
•
Hand Signal (1 finger, 2 fingers, 3 fingers)
Colored toilet paper tube (red and green)
Styrofoam cup on a string
Flags on the desk
Cardstock pyramid: “Please help me” and “Please
keep working”
• Stand up your textbook
• Post-It for Help
• “Red Folder” of alternative work
Tip: Students always continue to work while waiting
ctivityovemen
t
articipation
• What does it look like?
Teach Rules in the Context of Routines
• Teach expectations directly.
• Define rule in operational terms—tell students what
the rule looks like within routine.
• Provide students with examples and non-examples of
rule-following within routine.
• Actively involve students in lesson—game, role-play, etc.
to check for their understanding.
• Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior
in the natural setting.
Teaching Your Rules and Routines
• Explanation
• Define in concrete terms
• Rationale
• Demonstrate/Model: examples & nonexamples
• Rehearsal
• Practice
• Determine if re-teaching is necessary
• Feedback
• Specific praise
• Error correction
• Reteach
Lesson Plan
NAME OF RULE
Students will use a question card when they need my help during
independent work time.
ROUTINE
Students will be taught how to use a question card during independent work time.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF EXPECTED BEHAVIOR
WITHIN SPECIFIC ROUTINE
When students need my help during independent work time they will flip there
question card up on their desk. This signals to me that they have a question while I
am circulating around the room. Students will be taught to skip that problem and
work on another problem until I can get over to them to answer their question.
p.1
Lesson Plan
POSITIVE EXAMPLES
Student flips up question card and continues
working on another problem.
NEGATIVE EXAMPLES
Student flips up question card but does not continue
working.
Student blurts out question instead of using
question card.
PRACTICE OR ROLE PLAY ACTIVITIES
Students will practice using question card.
Students will blurt out answer and I will prompt them to use the question card.
WAYS TO PROMPT EXPECTED BEHAVIOR
Go over to student and point to question card.
Quietly remind student to use question card.
Respond to students who use question card.
p.2
Social Skills Lesson Plan
PROCEDURES FOR MONITORING STUDENT BEHAVIOR
Number of times students use the question card.
Number of times students blurt out question or get out of their seat.
PROCEDURES FOR RECOGNIZING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR
Positive praise: thank you for using the question card.
Responding to students that use question card.
PROCEDURES FOR CORRECTING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR
Quietly reminding student to use question card.
Responding quickly to students that use the question card. For some
students this might be a quick touch (John I see you have a question, I will
be right there. Remember to go on to the next problem).
p.3
3. Actively engage students in observable ways.
●
Provide high rates of opportunities to respond
– Vary individual v. group responding
– Increase participatory instruction (enthusiasm,
laughter)
●
●
Consider various observable ways to engage
students
– Written responses
– Writing on individual white boards
– Choral responding
– Gestures
– Other: ____________
Link engagement with outcome objectives (set goals to
increase engagement and assess student change)
Range of evidence based practices
that promote active engagement
●
Direct Instruction
●
Computer Assisted Instruction
●
Class-wide Peer Tutoring
●
Guided notes
●
Response Cards
4. Establish a continuum of strategies to
acknowledge appropriate behavior.
•Specific and Contingent Praise
•Group Contingencies
•Behavior Contracts
•Token Economies
Specific and Contingent Praise
•Praise should be…
• …contingent: occur immediately following
desired behavior
• …specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing
correctly and continue to do in the future
• “Good job” (not very specific)
• “I like how you are showing me active listening by
having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)
Praise Guidelines(Source: Reavis, Kukic, Jensen, Morgan,
Andrews, Fister, 1997)
I-Feed-V
I = immediate
F = frequent
E = enthusiasm
E = eye contact (?)
D = describe the behavior
V = variety
4:1
STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS
What Does 4 Positives to 1
Negative Mean?
• Students should experience more positive
interactions (ratio of 4 positives for every
negative) on all locations of school.
• Positive Interactions=
• Behaviorally specific feedback as to what the student did
right (contingent)
• Smile, nod, wink, greeting, attention, hand shake, high
five (non-contingent)
• Negative Interactions=
• Non-specific behavioral corrections
• Ignoring student behavior (appropriate or inappropriate)
Examples
•
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High Fives, Gotchas
Traveling Passport
Super Sub Slips, Bus Bucks
Back/front of bus
Free homework coupon
Discount school store, grab
bag
Early dismissal/Late arrival
First/last in Line
Coupon to store or restaurant
Positive Office Referrals
Extra dessert
1-Free Period
File stuffer
Coffee Coupon
Golden Plunger
Give Em’ a Hand
Kudos
Success is more likely in the
longer term when….
Prevention creates more positive than
negative consequences
Adults may need a tangible tool for monitoring ratios of
praise to reprimands
How to Access Help!
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PBIS coach (1 x week)
School Psychologist
BIST Consultant (1 x month)
SAT process
Special Education

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