The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700

The Northern Colonies in the
Seventeenth Century,
Puritan Origins:
The English Reformation
• Reformation refresher
• Henry VIII uses the Reformation for
political (and personal) means.
England breaks with the Catholic
• King is the supreme head of church,
church lands seized
• English (Angelican) church keeps
most practices of Catholicism
• Others (Puritans) wanted a full
reforming of the church. Wanted to
eliminate rituals and focus on the
• Persecution of Puritans in England
Puritans and the Settlement
of New England
• The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony
- want to build a orderly Puritan version of
- First Holland (to much vice) then onto
Plymouth Video
English Migration, 1610-1660
The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony
• Puritans obtain a Royal charter
for most of Northeast of
- special provision: gov’t
could be located in the colony
instead of England
• John Winthrop elected
Governor and settled in Boston
- “City Upon a Hill” sermon
• Native Americans- initially few
around because of epidemics;
relations will break down
The Early Years of
Massachusetts Bay Colony
• Disease spread quickly and killed many.
Starvation also an issue
• Settlers kept arriving; especially when Church of
England cracks down on Puritan ministers in
• Immigrants came from all parts of society and
unlike Chesapeake many women/children
The Evolution of
New England Society
Church, Covenant, and Conformity
• Puritans influenced by John Calvin
- strict discipline in behavior, & predestination
• All town residents must attend church services
• Everyone kept an eye on everyone else; trying to
prove saintliness
• Sabbath day taken seriously- fines issued for flute
playing or visiting neighbors
• Banned practices: Christmas, Easter, cards, dice,
any games of chance, music, dance
Government by Puritans for Puritanism
• Transformed the joint stock company into a colonial
• Freemen had voting rights on some issues & gov’t
- Freemen= male church members
- “Contrary minded” men forced out
Splintering of Puritanism
• How long did you think it
would last?
• Different visions of Godliness;
every town/church had
different rules
• Roger Williams speaks out
against the intolerance; leaves
and sets up Providence, Rhode
• Anne Hutchinson vs. John
Winthrop- Covenant of Grace
vs. Covenant of Works
• More divisions and
subdivisions of churches
Economic Changes
• Back in England: Cromwell and the Puritan
Republic (1649-1660)
- Effect: Immigration/trade to New England
dwindles, prices skyrocket
• Economy of New England
- No cash crops, rocky soil, and short growing
- Trade with Natives (for food and pelts)
- Trade with Europe (fish, pelts, timber)
• Population/Demographics: Continued to grow
because of a high birth rate (8-9 children the
Religious Issues
• Decedents of the first settlers felt saintliness was
• 2nd & 3rd generations not as pious. Creation of
Halfway Covenant church members.
• Quakers (society of friends) arrive in New England.
Different beliefs.
- God speaks directly to everyone; do not need
preachers or Bibles
- Refuse to conform to laws and government,
- As you can imagine there is conflict between
the Quakers and Puritans. (See page 121)
• Salem Witch Trials- 100 accused of witchcraft, 19
The Founding of the
Middle Colonies- last 1/3 of 1600s
• From New Netherland to New York
- Dutch West India Company purchases
Manhattan for goods worth 12 beaver pelts from
local Natives.
- New Amsterdam
- Low population (although highly diverse) and
low profits
- Monarchy restored in England. Duke of York
is given New Netherland as a land grant; sent
warships and kicked out the Dutch
- Early Governors struggle with controlling the
colony because of its’ diversity
New Jersey and Pennsylvania
• Duke of York subdivides his land grant
• Quarrels between officials. William Penn
steps in.(Quaker and prominent individual
from a military/political family)
– Jersey stays a propriety colony (focused
on trade)
– Penn given a land grant for a Quaker
colony (Pennsylvania); given to rid
England of Quakers
Toleration and Diversity in
The Colonies and the British Empire
• Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade
- Monarchy consolidates proprietary grants
into Royal colonies
- Policies designed to increase revenues for the
Monarchy and English merchants/shippers
• 1663 Staple Act: All goods imported into colonies
must pass throw English ports
• Overall the Monarchy was establish a highly
regulatory trading system
Relations with Native Americans
and King Philip’s War
• Massachusetts settlers massacre Pequot’s 1637
• 1670s warfare erupts in both New England &
Chesapeake (Bacon)
In New England
- Steady encroachment on Native land
- Wampanoags struck back; Chief is
Metacomet/King Philip (settlers name for him)
- Counterattacks and thousands are killed.
- Colonists gain upper hand and defeated the
Wampanoags with a scorched-earth policy. (see
map on the next page)
Aftermath: Hatred of Natives, large war debt,
devastated frontier and…
King Philip’s War, 1675 – 1676)
Monarchy takes control of
New England
• Aftermath Continued:
- King’s agents found laws were not abided
- Monarchy incorporates Massachusetts and
other colonies
- Puritans really mad (especially when Catholics
were appointed gov’t positions)
• Chaos in both England and New England
- Protestants seize control again in England
- Uprisings in New England
- French from Canada began attacking New
England. (would lead to several wars in the
1700s that are fought both in Europe and the New
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