A Universal Design Approach for Providing Computer Access Sheryl Burgstahler Terrill Thompson University of Washington Seattle Access to IT is Important Because IT: changes the way we live, work, learn, & communicate, & play drives advances in other fields powers the economy 2 Presentation Outline • • • • • • • About our two Centers at UW Approaches to Access Assistive Technology Universal Design Approach Implications for Practice The UW Experience Resources Two UW Centers Access Technology Center (ATC) Founded 1984 Funded by UW DO-IT Center Founded1992 Supported with federal, state, corporate, private funds Expanded to DO-IT Japan in 2007 DO-IT Center Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, & Technology DO-IT Goal: To increase the success of individuals with disabilities in postsecondary education & careers, using technology as an empowering tool. DO-IT Addresses Challenges diminished support systems after high school little access to successful role models inadequate self-advocacy skills lack of or ineffective accommodations low expectations on the part of people with whom they interact & … …lack of access to technology that can increase: • independence • productivity • participation in • education • careers • family life • community • recreation The Access Technology Center… ensures computers, software & computing services are accessible to UW faculty, students & staff Consults & trains on accessible design of IT Hosts showroom of assistive technology (AT) Consults & trains on hardware & software Integrates AT into campus computer labs Ability on a Continuum see hear walk read print write with pen or pencil communicate verbally tune out distraction learn manage physical/mental health Evolution of access approaches: Attitude Action Exclusion None Allowed if you can fit in Cure, Rehabilitation Accommodation Social justice Universal Design Accommodation Accommodation = Alternate format, service, &/or adjustment for a specific individual “Coffeepot for Masochists”, Catalog of Unfindable Objects by Jacques Carelman; in Donald Norman’s The Psychology of Everyday Things, 1988 Universal design = “the design of products & environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” The Center for Universal Design www.design.ncsu.edu/cud How could you universally design a name tag? UD in education is: • an attitude that values diversity, equity, & inclusion. • a goal. • a process. • practices that make educational products & environments welcoming, accessible, & usable for everyone. Apply universal design to: • Student services • Instruction • Technology • Physical spaces… Problem Solution access to computers assistive technology (AT) access to electronic resources universal design Very Short History of AT: Rodney & the Apple II • 6 years old • No use of hands & legs • Used Mouth wand • Issue: Could not press 2 keys at once • Solution: Engineering student build switch box to lock shift, control, repeat keys Now: Thousands of Products Closing the Gap Resource Directory provides just a sample of: 342 hardware products 982 software products 112 other AT 251 producers of AT Jeanine Cook, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Electrical & Computer Engineering New Mexico State University 23 Sang-Mook Lee, Ph.D. Geoscience Professor, Seoul National University • sip & puff, head controls • onscreen keyboard • English speech input • phone-computer interface 24 Anthony Arnold AT Specialist Prentke Romich • synthesized voice on communication device • touch screen • computer-based environmental control, phone access 25 Kayla Brown UW student • laptop computer • miniature mouse • speech recognition • smart phone 26 Jessie Shulman BA, Informatics Business Analyst Amazon.com • speech output • speech input • grammar/spell checker 27 Nicole Torcolini Bachelors Degree Computer Science Stanford Google • speech output • Braille translation software • Braille display & printer 28 Imke Durre, Ph.D. Climatologist National Weather Service • speech output • Braille translation software • Braille display & printer • speech input • Morse code foot switch 29 Christian Vogler, Ph. D. Computer Scientist Gallaudet University • visual notifications for audio alerts • captions • sign language 30 AT may be part of the solution Image: Many Stairs Old School Technologies Today: Technological Diversity We All Have Choices Today's Design Process • Make no assumptions about users' needs or technologies • Design and develop according to standards A Very Brief History of the World Wide Web Sir Tim Berners Lee • Proposed the Web in March 1989 • Demonstrated it in 1990 • Wrote HTML in 1993 • Founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1994 HTML 1.2 • Written by Tim Berners-Lee in a memo in June 1993 • Introduced the <img> tag • Simultaneously introduced the ALT attribute for people who couldn't see the image W3C Accessibility Standards Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) • 1.0 published in 1999 • 2.0 (the current version) published in 2008 • Three levels of success criteria - 26 “Level A” success criteria – the most important - 13 “Level AA” success criteria – also important - 23 “Level AAA” success criteria – maximum accessibility • Four principles (POUR): - Perceivable - Operable - Understandable - Robust More W3C Accessibility Standards • Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 • User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 • Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) • Defines new markup that communicates: • Role (e.g., menu, slider, dialog, alert) • State (e.g., is this hidden? Is it expanded?) • Properties (e.g., what are the maximum and minimum values on a slider? What is the current value?) IT Accessibility Standards & The Law • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act • Passed in 1973; no IT accessibility standards • Americans with Disabilities Act • Passed in 1990; no IT accessibility standards • Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act • Amended in 1998 • Requires IT accessibility of federal agencies • IT accessibility standards published in 2001 • Standards currently undergoing a "refresh" • Latest draft (December 2011) adopted WCAG 2.0 at Level AA Proposed New ADA Rules • July 2010 - U.S. Department of Justice proposed new rules that clarify ADA requirements related to web accessibility • Jan 2011 – Public comment period ended • In RFC DOJ was considering adopting WCAG 2.0 at Level AA • More news – maybe rules – expected in July 2013? The law requires that we 1 include everyone but… 1 “qualified individuals” Why wouldn't we do that anyway? Including everyone benefits our course, our institution, and our world… What are higher education institutions doing to promote IT accessibility? Developing accessibility policies • 26.1% of Doctorate institutions have policies that address web or IT accessibility (8.4% of all U.S. institutions) Offering trainings, providing support resources, building community Approximately 100 institutions have over 1000 results when searching their website for "web accessibility" Building accessibility requirements into RFPs and contracts We're dependent on IT vendors for accessibility If we don't all demand accessibility, they can't hear us Universal Design & Video: Closed Captions Captions make video accessible to the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Captions help ESL viewers Captions can be translated on-the-fly into other languages Captions are searchable Universal Design & The iPhone Speech output Speech input Screen/text enlargement Variable colors/contrast Audible, visible, vibrating alerts Assignable ringtones Bluetooth connectivity for keyboard, refreshable Braille display, … Accessibility built-in for most apps Universal Design & Video: Interactive Transcript Provides access to video for: Braille users (Deaf/blind) People with low Internet bandwidth People who want information quickly Share Your Stories What are you doing on your campus that exemplifies a Universal Design approach to technology access? The UW Experience Reporting structures & roles of Access Technology Center, Learning Technologies & Disability Resources for Students The UW Experience IT Accessibility Task Force with representation from: UW External Affairs UW-IT Disability Resources for Students Office of Risk Management The UW Experience IT Accessibility Task Force focused on three areas: Enhancement of online UW-IT Promote accessible IT Explore policies/processes The UW Experience IT Accessibility Task Force accomplishments of members: Collaborated to create accessible WordPress and Drupal Templates/Themes Updated content/organization of IT Accessibility website & added videos Video captioning RFP Risk assessment report developed UW Marketing helping to promote accessibility Continuing to work together Resources IT Accessibility Website www.uw.edu/accessibility DO-IT Video www.uw.edu/doit/video Center on Universal Design in Education www.uw.edu/doit/CUDE Questions?