Chapter 7

Report
Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Sociology: A Down-to-Earth
Approach 7/e
James M. Henslin
Chapter Seven: Bureaucracy and
Formal Organizations
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
The Rationalization of Society
“The idea that efficiency and practical results
should dominate human affairs.”
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Why Did Society Change?

Prior—Traditional Orientation


Past Best Guide for Present
Post—Industrialization

Rationality—Most Efficient Going
Forward
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Why Did Society Change?

Marx: Capitalism Broke Tradition

Weber: Religion Broke Tradition
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
What Are Formal Organizations?
“Secondary groups designed to
achieve specific objectives.”
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Formal Organizations
and Bureaucracy

Five Characteristics of Bureaucracies
1. Clear Levels
2. Division of Labor
3. Written Rules
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Formal Organizations
and Bureaucracy
4. Written Communication and Records
5. Impersonality
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Formal Organizations
and Bureaucracy

“Ideal” vs. “Real” Bureaucracy

Extent of Bureaucracy—A Matter of
Degree

Ideal vs. Actual Organizational Chart
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies

Red Tape

Lack of Communication Between Units

Bureaucratic Alienation
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies

Resisting Alienation

The Alienated Bureaucrat

Bureaucratic Incompetence
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Formal Organizations
and Bureaucracy

Goal Displacement

Perpetuation of Bureaucracies

Social Significance of Bureaucracies
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Voluntary Associations


Functions of Voluntary Associations

Advance Particular Interests

Offer People Identity

Govern Nations and Maintain Social Order
These Apply to All or Most Voluntary
Associations
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Voluntary Associations


Functions of Voluntary Associations

Mediate Between Government and Individuals

Help Individuals Climb Occupational Ladder

Bring People into Political Mainstream

Pave Way for Social Change
These Apply to Only Some Voluntary Associations
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Voluntary Associations


Shared Interests

Motivations for Joining Differ

Experience High Turnover
The Problem of Oligarchy

Leaders Grow Distant from Members

The “Inner Group”
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Working for the Corporation

Stereotypes

The “Hidden” Corporate Culture


Hidden Values

Self-Fulfilling Prophesies
Achievement Level Affects Behavior
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Humanizing the Corporate Culture

Develop Rather than Impede Potential

Access to Opportunities

Distribute Power More Evenly
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Humanizing the Corporate Culture

Work Teams

Corporate Day Care

Employee Stock Ownership

Quality Circles
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
Working for the Corporation

The Conflict Perspective

Technology and Control of Workers
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
U.S. and Japanese Corporations

How They Differ

Hiring and Promoting

Lifetime Security

Almost Total Involvement

Decision-Making by Consensus
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Chapter 7: Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations
U.S. and Japanese Corporations

Myth vs. Reality

Differences Generally True

However, Changes Afoot
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