Plants Genetics Engineering: GM product Mercer University School of Engineering

Report
Plants Genetics
Engineering: GM product
Mercer University School of
Engineering
Professional Practice, Dr. Davis
Y, Shin
Did you know?
In the U.S. in 1999, more than 40% of corn,
more than 50% of cotton, and more than
45% of soybeans were genetically modified
crops (Hesson, 2002).
 At least 60% of products in US
supermarkets contain GMO (Genetically
Modifed Organisms) (Ahmed, 2002)
 FDA approved that GM foods are safe as
much as non-GM foods
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What is genetically engineered
food?
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Food produced by a crop whose genetic
composition is genetically modified, or
bioengineered for improvement
Image from ww.gm.org/?p=42
Pros
- Less time consuming
-Obtain specifically desired traits from single gene
- Improve agricultural production
- Help reduce world hunger
Advantage
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Herbicide resistance
Nitrogen fixation
Virus / diseases resistance
Hardier
Higher yielding / higher productivity
More nutritious
Less cost of production
Higher tolerance to extreme environment
Better taste
Creation of new species of crops
Cons
The technology is still in infancy and is not tested thoroughly.
Safety is not guaranteed
There are no global agreement on safety standards to test safety of
GM food
GM food might affect us genetically as well
GMOs might affect wildlife and its environment
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Potential effects
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May develop new diseases
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Weeds might become immune to herbicides
May lack nutrients
May develop new allergens
May harm human growth
May develop toxin
Narrowing plant species
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Sample GM products
Chart from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec006group5/gm_food
Genetically Modified Soy in Russia
Summary of Article
A research performed in Russia showed affect
of GM soy on posterity of living creature.
This research suggest that parents with GMbased food diet may have impact on their
newborn.
For the experiment three groups of female rats two
weeks prior to conception and during conception
and nursing were tested as following:
First group were fed with GM soy flour,
Second group were given no soy,
Third group received conventional soy flour.
And birth and death of baby rats were counted.
The result showed that diet had no impact on
number of offsprings produced. However it
affected death rate.
The first group had 6.8%, second group had
55.6%, and third group had 9% of death rate.
Original article and picture in
courtesy of Good. And
Hasslberger
Technological Evolution
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Past- Classical breeding
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Cross-fertilization:
Isolated and selected desired traits within a
plant and breed it with other plants
Present – Genetics engineering
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Recombinating DNA: Inserting a gene of an
organism (virus, bacteria, or plant of different
species) that contain desired traits into a
desired plant
Societal Inputs
FDA have approved of GM food safe
 Biotech tech companies are pushing GM
products in the market
 Many people disapprove of GM foods
 Many people are unaware that many food
products are either GM or contain GMOs
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Is genetics engineering ethical?
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We must ask ourselves “Does humans
have rights to “play god” and to manipulate
animals and plants genetically”?
GM food and you
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Impacts of GM food on society
So What?
GM food must be tested further for human
and environmental safety before
commercialized
 GM production will increase in developing
countries
 GM food may be the food in the future
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Reference
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Bren, L. Genetic Engineering: The future of food? FDA
Consumer Magazine, 37. Retrieved March 15, 2008, from
http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2003/603_food.html
Gert3d. GM food and me. Retrieved March 25, 2008 from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8p7M0WF_7A
Good, R Hasslberger,S. November 02, 2005. Genetically
modified soy in Russia Retrieved March 26, 2008
http://www.biotechweblog.com/50226711/genetically_modified_soy_in_russia.php
Hesson, N. Debate and Policies on Labeling GM Foods.
Retrieved March 24,2008 from
www.bio.davidson.edu/.../GMevents/NH/NH.html
McDonagh, S. Ethics and Genetic Engineering. Retrieved
March 15, 2008, from
http://www.voice.buz.org/genetic_engineering/ethicsandge.html
Reference continued
• MORLEY, E. Frankenfood approved. Economist, 370. Retrieved March 15,
2008, from
http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=109&sid=58b98f05-085d4008-a21d-5693c4c7b0f8%40sessionmgr104
• National Research Council Staff (1984). Genetic Engineering of Plants:
Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns. Retrieved March 15,
2008, from
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/mercer/Doc?id=10056707&ppg=64
• New weapon for farmers is discovered (Sep 23,1994). New York Times.
Retrieved March 15, 2008, from
http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/auth/checkbrowser.do?ipcounter=1&c
ookieState=0&rand=0.7858060772632571&rbhcp=1
• The Regents of the University of Michigan (1997). GM Crops: Costs and
Benefits. Retrieved March 24, 2008 from
http://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec006group5/gm_food
• Newman, J (21 June 2003). Is GM food safe? Retrieved March 24, 2008 from
www.non-gm-farmers.com/news_print.asp?ID=486

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