(VO) V 得(很) Adj.

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补语的种类
Verb + Complements
Types of Complements
Descriptive
• How or to what degree the action took place
• (V-O) V 得 (很) Adj. ; (V-O) V 得 不 Adj.
Resultative
• Whether the result of the action has been achieved
• V Comp (了); 沒 V Comp
Potential
• Whether the result has the potential to be achieved
• V 得 Comp; V 不 Comp
Directional
• the direction of the action
• (沒) V Comp1 Comp2
补语1 Descriptive:
(VO) + V. + 得 + Adj.

他说话说得很清楚。

我上个星期考试考得很好。
补语2:Resultative Complements
Verb +
Adjective
Another Verb
Denotes the result
of the action
补语2:Resultative Complements
小白菜卖完了。
Verb 卖: action
Verb 完:result
Baby bok choy is sold out.
补语2:Resultative Complements
你找钱找错了。
Verb 找钱: action
Adjective 错:result
You gave me incorrect change.
补语2:Resultative Complements
那个人你看清楚了吗?
Verb 看: action
Adjective 清楚:result
Did you see clearly on that person?
补语2:Negative Form
Resultative Complement
A: 那个人我看清楚了。
没(有)
不
N: 那个人我 ________看清楚。
I didn’t see clearly who that person was.
补语2:Negative Form
Resultative Complement
Rule: 没有+Verb Phrase
那个人我 没(有)看清楚。
I didn’t see clearly who that person was.
补语3:Potential Complement
V. + 得 + Resultative/directional
A result can
be realized
学得会
A result can’t
be realized
学不会
V. + 不 + Resultative/directional
补语3:Potential Complement
五十个饺子你吃得完吃不完?
太多了,我吃不完。
More examples, see P. 173-175
补语3:Potential Comp vs.
Negative form of Resultative Comp
没有 + Verb Phrase
Verb + 不 + Verb/Adj.
没卖完
没看清楚
没写对
卖不完 (too many)
看不清楚 (poor vision)
写不对 (too difficult)
Denotes the
action didn’t have
the result
Denotes that
something prohibits
the action to be
completed
补语 4:Directional Movement
他
走
他
走
• Mover
• Person
• Movement
verb
进
进
• Directional
word
教室
教室
• Reference
Point
More examples, see P. 185-189
来了
来了
• Speaker
Perspective
• 来:
towards the
speaker
• 去:away
from the
speaker
补语4:Common Movement Verbs







走 zǒu
跑 pǎo
开 kāi
飞 fēi
跳 tiào
爬 pá
游 yóu







walk
run
drive
fly
skip/jump/dance
climb
swim
补语4:Common Directional Words








进
到
出
过
上
下
往
回



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



into
at
out of
pass/go by
up
down
towards
return back
补语4:Speaker’s Perspective
来:indicates movement towards the
speaker or addressee.
 去:indicates movement away from
the speaker or addressee.

补语4:Translate …
他走回家去了。
我的钱,他都拿走了。
妹妹拿来了很多东西。
请把你的中文书带来。


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