Knowledge Ladder

Report
ICT, Education Transformation, and
Economic and Social Development
Dr. Robert Kozma | April 2011 | Montevideo Uruguay
A UNESCO Workshop
The Rhetoric for ICT in Education
Many countries justify the use of ICT in schools by saying
it will help create an information economy or knowledge
society:
Singapore’s The third
Masterplan “continues
the vision of the first and
second Materplans to
enrich and transform the
learning environments of
our students and equip
them with the critical
competencies and
dispositions to succeed
in a knowledge
economy”
Jordan’s ICT-based
reform effort was to
make the education
sector “responsive to
employment market
demands in key
industries and develop
critical ‘Knowledge
Economy skills’ at all
levels of the
education system”
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Tech/NA, Namibia’s
education ICT initiative,
states that “Arising from
the overall capacity
building investments,
Namibia will be
transformed into a
knowledge-based
society.”
Rwanda’s ICT in
Education Strategic Plan
envisions that all
Rwandans will “reach
their individual potential
to become well-rounded
critically thinking citizens
of an innovative ,
knowledge-based
economy.”
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Away from a Manufacturing Economy
• Mass production
• Standardized products
• Manual labor or rote
cognitive tasks
• Hierarchical command
and control
• Highly integrated
organizations
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Toward an Information Economy
• Services are the largest
sector of 25 largest
economies
• Information products
and services shows the
most growth
• Innovation and new
knowledge are a major
engine of economic
growth
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
and a Knowledge Society
• High level of education.
• High penetration of ICT in the
home.
• Large majorities of people use
the internet for email.
• Large majorities use it as a
primary information source
• Large percentages of young
people use it to connect with
groups, create and share
digital materials.
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Transformed Business Practices
• Self-managed teams
• Regular employee
meetings
• Flexible work
arrangements
• Use of computers in
front-line positions
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Transformed Organizational Structures
• Organizational flattening
• Decentralized decision
making
• Disaggregation
• Out sourcing/off shoring
• Cross-organizational
collaboration
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Transformed Jobs
• Less demand for manual skills
and routine cognitive tasks
• More demand for problemsolving, communications skills
and team skills.
• ICT substitutes for low-skilled
workers, supplements highskilled workers
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Transformations are Enabled by ICT
• To connect distributed
teams of employees
• To coordinate with
partners and suppliers
• To collect and share
information
• To provide products and
services to customers
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Transformed Schools?
• Schools structured as enclosed
groups and physical spaces
• Curriculum is in silos tied to
disciplines
• Teacher lectures
• Students study independently
• Standardized exams test recall
and application of simple
procedures
• Technology used as a
supplement
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Education Transformation
Is the introduction of
computers enough?
What role can policy play?
Not just ICT - • Teaching and Learning
• Curriculum and
Assessment
• Social Structure
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Knowledge Ladder
• Conceptual framework for policy planning
• Holistic:
– All components
– Aligned changes
• Developmental and progressive:
– Addresses a range of current conditions.
– Advances build on current resources and experiences
• Connected to economic and social development.
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
A Conceptual Framework:
The Knowledge Ladder
Basic
Education
Knowledge
Acquisition
Knowledge
Deepening
Knowledge
Creation
Each model has different implications for:
• Policy Goals
• Teaching and Learning
• Curriculum and Assessment
• Social Structure
• ICT Use
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Knowledge Ladder:
Policy Goals
Basic
Education
Knowledge
Acquisition
Knowledge
Deepening
Knowledge
Creation
Increase
workforce
participation
improved health
and welfare
Develop a
manufacturing
economy
Create a highly
knowledgeable
citizenry that
adds value to
society
Create a
knowledgedriven economy
and society
Graduates who
apply school
learning to solve
real world
problems
Graduates who
are creative,
innovative,
lifelong learners
Increase primary
attendance
Increase
secondary
completion,
improve test
scores
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Knowledge Ladder:
Teaching and Learning
Basic
Education
Knowledge
Acquisition
Knowledge
Deepening
Knowledge
Creation
Teachers with at
minimum skills
& subject
knowledge
Teacher content
knowledge &
direct instruction
Content &
pedagogical
expertise
Teachers as
collaborators and
model learners
Students doing
individual seat
work
Collaborative
teams working on
complex real
world projects
Communities of
learners who
build on each
other’s
knowledge
Large studentteacher ratios,
lecture
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Knowledge Ladder:
Curriculum and Assessment
Basic
Education
Knowledge
Acquisition
Knowledge
Deepening
Knowledge
Creation
Focus is on
basic literacy
and numeracy
Focus on facts,
simple
principles,
and computer
applications
applied to
standard
procedures
Focus on deep
understanding of
key concepts and
their application
to solve
real world
problems
Focus on
innovativeness
and the creation
of knowledge
products
Assessed by
standardized
tests
Assessed by
standardized
tests
Assessed by
complex, real
world tasks
Assessed by a
community of
users
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Knowledge Ladder:
Social Structure
Basic
Education
Knowledge
Acquisition
Knowledge
Deepening
Knowledge
Creation
Hierarchical
structure
Hierarchical
structure and
accountability
Collaborative
teaching and
learning
Anytime,
anywhere,
life-long learning
Little teacher or
student
autonomy
Breaking
disciplinary and
physical
boundaries
Self-sustaining,
cross-age,
cross-sector
knowledge
communities
Standardized
delivery
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Knowledge Ladder:
ICT Use
Basic
Education
ICT for
information
delivery: radio,
TV
Little
computing; little
networking,
potential for
teacher training.
Knowledge
Acquisition
Knowledge
Deepening
Drill and
practice, tutorial
software to
support test
performance
Simulations,
multimedia to
support
understanding
&the application
of knowledge to
solve problems
Computers in
labs; networks
for management
Computers in
classrooms;
networks for
collaboration
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Knowledge
Creation
Social
environments,
Wikis, and
knowledgebuilding tools
Computers &
digital devices
everywhere;
networks for
community
DR. ROBERT KOZMA
Educational Transformation
What kind of change needs to take
place in education?
Holistic Change
What role can ICT play?
A Lever for Change
ICT alone will not transform education
ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
DR. ROBERT KOZMA

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