Chapter 12 Population Growth and Urbanization

Chapter 12
and Urbanization
Myth or Fact?
 The most important factor  The U.S. achieved zero
population growth when
in controlling world
the birthrate dropped
population growth is
below replacement rate in
technology, especially
the 1970s.
 U.S. cities are segregated  Suburban growth in the
U.S. began because
because whites and nonpeople wanted larger
whites don’t want to live in
homes and more land.
the same neighborhoods.
Studying Population
 Population
 Total number of people inhabiting a
particular geographic area at a specific
 Demography
 Study of the size, composition and
distribution of human populations
 How these factors change over time
Elements of Demographic Change
 Fertility
 Actual number of children born
 Crude birth rate—the number of live births a year per 1,000 in a
 Fecundity—the biological maximum number of children a
woman could bear
 Mortality
 Number of deaths in a population
 Crude death rate—total number of deaths a year per 1,000 in a
 Infant mortality—rate of death among infants under 1 year
 Life Expectancy
 Average number of years people can expect to live
 Rate of natural increase
 The difference between crude birth and death rates
 Migration
 Permanent change of residence
 Immigration—movement into a country
 Emigration—movement out of a country
Global Fertility Rates
Global Life Expectancy
Global Infant Mortality Rates
Global Migration
World Population Growth
 Doubling time
 Years required for world population to double
Population Growth
Population Projections
Population Growth and
U.S. Population Projections
World Population Trends
 Demographic transition
 Changing patterns of birth and death rates
brought about by industrialization
 Demographic gap
 Gap between high birth rates and low death
 Carrying capacity
 The upper-size limit imposed on a population by
its environmental resources
 And that cannot be exceeded
Four Stages
of Demographic Transition
Preindustrial Stage
High Birth Rates and
High Death Rates
Early Industrial Stage
High Birth Rates and
Declining Death Rates
Industrial Stage
Declining Death Rates and
Declining Birth Rates
Postindustrial Stage
Low Birth Rates
and Low Death Rates
Demographic Transition
Video Presentation:
World in the Balance:
The Population Paradox”
Perspectives on Population Growth
 Functionalism
 Thomas Malthus – “Essay on the Principles of
 Concern about population boom in Europe during
Industrial Revolution
 The Malthusian Theorem
 Food production growth is additive
 Population growth is exponential
 The “Malthusian Trap”
 Population growth as a social problem
 Relationship between population growth and
exhaustion of available resources
Perspectives on Population Growth
 Conflict Theory
 Population problems due to inequitable
distribution of resources
 Rather than lack of resources
 Population as a social problem
 When those in control artificially limit the available
 In order to benefit one group or make a profit
 Interactionism
 Population a social problem
 Focus on subjective experience of reality
 Related to definitions about what is desirable or
Consequences of World
Population Growth
Depletion of
Consequences of Population Growth
 Crowding
 Associated with other social problems
 Poverty, violence, crime
 Food shortages
 Efforts focused on sea, farmland and yield
 The “Green Revolution”
 Biotechnology and modified species
 Depletion of resources
 Shortages of fossil fuels
 Inter-group conflict
 Competition for scarce resources
 Space and food
Future Prospects: Population Problems
 Zero Population Growth
 Nearly equal birth and death rates
 Produce a zero rate of natural increase
 Family Planning
 Reproductive choices
 Programs to change culture and values
 Economic Development
 In developing countries
 Urbanization, education, rising standards of living
 Incentives
 Usually economic
 Tax breaks, trust funds
 Status of Women
 Promote greater equality
 Education, employment, political participation
The History of Cities
 All humans organize lives into communities
 Groups of people who share:
 A common territory
 Sense of identity or belonging
 Who interact with one another
 Cities are:
 Relatively large, permanent communities
 Reliant on surrounding agricultural communities for food
 History of communities
 Ancient: small bands of hunter-gatherers
 8,000 BC: larger villages with cultivation and
 500 BC: large cities
The Growth of Cities
 Urbanization:
 Process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
 Industrialization (18th—19th century)
 Change in the U.S.
 1800: ~ 6% lived in cities
 2000: ~ 80% lived in cities
 Suburbs:
 On the outskirts of cities
 Less densely populated
 Primarily residential
 Suburbanization:
 Government policies (1930s)
 Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
 Veteran’s Administration (VA)
 Economy and technology (1940s-50s)
 Change in U.S.
 1970: 75% of suburban residents both live and work in suburbs
 2000: 60% of urban population lives in suburbs
Urban/Rural Makeup of U.S.
How Urban Is Your State?
Urban Density in the U.S. (2006)
 Population per square mile
 U.S. average: 79
 Rural area average: 15
 Urban density
Minneapolis: 1,800
Portland: 3,000
Los Angeles: 8,000
Philadelphia: 10,000
Chicago: 12,000
San Francisco: 15,000
Isla Vista: 18,000 (per ½ sq. mile)
New York City: 27,000 (Manhattan: 70,000)
Urban Density in the U.S.
Shrinking and Growing Cities
Global Megacities
Video Presentation:
World in the Balance:
China Revs Up”
Problems in Cities in the U.S.
Economic Decline
Educational Problems
Problems in Cities in the U.S.
 Economic Decline
 Flight of people and jobs from cities
 Financial collapse of cities in Northeast and Midwest
 Housing
 Deterioration and abandonment of neighborhoods
 Inadequate affordable housing
 Segregation
 Ghetto
 A neighborhood inhabited largely by members of a single ethnic or
racial group
 Exacerbates poverty, racial tensions
 Crime
 The larger the city, the higher the crime rate
 More likely in inner-cities where poor and minorities live
 Educational Problems
 Poor communities cannot afford expenses
Urban Flight
Perspectives on Urbanization
 Functionalism
 Urban conditions become social problems
 When they become dysfunctional
 When they lead to social disorganization
 Conflict Theory
 Urban conditions become social problems
 Due to social inequality
 Inner-city residents have little economic and political
 Interactionism
 Urban conditions become social problems
 When defined subjectively
 Urban conditions “worsened” in 1980s-90s
Future Prospects: Urban Problems
 Federal Grants and Programs
 Urban renewal and community block grants
 Rebuild blighted areas
 Provide low-cost housing
 Stimulate private investment
 Private Investment
 Focus on making cities a better places to live
 “Enterprise zones”
 Community Development
 Combines private and public resources
 Involves community stakeholders in planning
 Resettlement of Cities
 Encouraging homeowners to move back to cities
 “Urban homesteading”
 “Gentrification”
 Regional Planning and Cooperation
 Many problems benefit from regional decision making

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