Development of a Fully Autonomous Micro Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig

Report
Development of a Fully Autonomous Micro
Aerial Vehicle for Ground Traffic Surveillance
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Contents
2

Introduction

Theoretical Work

The Hardware of “Carolo”

Applications

Current Status & Outlook
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
Introduction - What is an MAV ?
3
definition according to DARPA

semiautonomous aerial vehicle

max. dimensions: 15 x 15 x 15 cm

max. mass: ~ 115 g (4 ounces)

cost: < 1000$
additional requirements

telemetry link to ground control
(for remote control)

real-time video link

range: ~ 10 km

cruising speed: ~ 50 km/h

endurance: 20 min - 60 min
Black Widow,
Aerovironment Inc.
Entomopter,
GeorgiaTec
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
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Introduction - The Project “Carolo”
4
Goal:
development of an autonomously operating
Micro Aerial Vehicle with
dimensions as small as possible
wing span
mass
cruising speed
endurance
range
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
0.40 m
390 g
18 m/s
40 min
45 km
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Theoretical Work
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
5
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Theoretical Work – Overall Control Structure
6
wind
pilot,
navigation module
autopilot
attitude
controller
actuators
sensors
damper
modeling of

non-linear flight mechanics

sensor dynamics

turbulent atmosphere

actuator dynamics
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7
Theoretical Work - Database
Wind Tunnel Readings
5 - dimensional parameter field
CX, CY, CZ, CL, CM, CN = f(a, b, h, x, k)
Angle of Attack
Sideslip
Elevator
Aileron
Flaps
-10° < a < 40°
-32° < b < 32°
-15° < h < 15°
-15° < x < 15°
-8° < k < 12°
Calculated Damping Derivatives
Wind tunel test april 2002 at the
Institute of Fluid Dynamics,
Technical University of Braunschweig
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Roll Damping
Pitch Damping
Yaw Damping
CLp
CMq
CNr
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Theoretical Work - Results
8
Simulation of the autopilot
simulation with:
 actuator dynamics
 sensor error models
 carolo‘s control algorithms
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
 stable behavior, stationary accuracy
 oscillations due to
sensor deadtime,
GPS update rate
missing curved flight compensation
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The Hardware of “Carolo”
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
9
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The Hardware of “Carolo” - Anatomy
10
telemetry
on-board
computer
payload
sensors
propulsion
system
actuators
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
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The Hardware of “Carolo” - Sensors

receiver for Global Positioning System (GPS)

atmospheric pressure sensor

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

3 angular rate sensors

3 linear acceleration sensors

commercial-off-the-shelf
components (COTS)

in-flight sensor data fusion
11
MEMS-based 6-dof IMU
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
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The Hardware of “Carolo” - Sensor Calibration
comparison of MAV IMU data with Honeywell LaserNav,
test flight with the university‘s research aircraft DO128
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
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12
The Hardware of “Carolo” - Onboard Electronics
13
current autopilot hardware
dimensions: 75mm*40mm*38 mm
GPRS
GPS
mass:
85 gr.
including:
on-board computer
gps & antenna
3 accelerometers
3 gyros
3-axis magnetometer
2 pressure sensors
ACTUATORS
IMU
PROPULSION
video camera: 25 gr. (analog)
PAYLOAD
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
telemetry:
50 gr. (future)
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Applications
14
The MAV “Carolo”, wingspan 40 cm, mass 390 g
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Applications
15
possible applications

meteorology
– vertical profiles of temperature and humidity
– increase of spatial resolution by using multiple MAVs

Live video transmission
– Police, border patrol, military applications
– Civil protection
– Ground traffic surveilance
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
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Ground Traffic Surveillance - Concept
16
Carolo
Internet
mission control
GPRS /
UMTS
mobile access
data analysis

police, fire department

ambulance

accident investigation

highway board
department
of information
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
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Ground Traffic Surveillance - Image Sensor

current: analog video camera
–
–
–
–

mass: ~ 25 g
dedicated radio downlink
live video stream
short range: ~ 200 m
under progress: digital CMOS camera
–
–
–
–
–
mass: ~ 30 g
resolution: 1.3 megapixel
image transmission via telemetry link
frame rate depends on telemetry data rate
on-board image compression possible
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17
Ground Traffic Surveillance - Telemetry

18
mobile cellular phone network
– infrastructure already available
– virtually unlimited range
– comparably low data rate requires
image compression (e.g. JPEG2000)
type
GSM
GPRS
UMTS
data rate
9.6 kbps
28.8 kbps
384 kbps
comparison of different standards for mobile communication
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
Ground Traffic Surveillance - Aerial Image Quality

no compression

field of view: 510 m x 380 m

image size: 1024 x 768 pixel

data size: 2304 kbyte
high-resolution aerial picture, no compression
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
19
Ground Traffic Surveillance - Aerial Image Quality

JPEG2000 (rate 1:40)

field of view: 510 m x 380 m

image size: 1024 x 768 pixel

data size: 60 kbyte
high-resolution aerial picture, compression rate 1:40
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
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Ground Traffic Surveillance - Aerial Image Quality
JPEG2000
(rate: 1:40)

field of view: 160 m x 120 m

image size: 320 x 240 pixel

data size: 5.5 kbyte
low-resolution aerial picture, compression rate 1:40
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
21
Ground Traffic Surveillance - Telemetry
22
data rate
time per
hi-res. image
time per
lo-res. image
GSM
GPRS
9.6 kbps
28.8 kbps
62.5 s
20.8 s
5.7 s
1.9 s
UMTS
384 kbps
1.6 s
0.2 s
type
comparison of different standards for mobile communication
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
Ground Traffic Surveillance - Ground Control
ground control PC software, server-client-based
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
23
Current Status & Outlook
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24
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
Current Status - Towards Autonomous Flight
Altitude Controller
Waypoint Navigation
- August 2003 -
- September 2003 -

circling during strong thermal activity
 DH < 2m
 no optimized feedback gains
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig

25
succesful test of complete autopilot
 test platform:
model plane, span 1.5 m
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Outlook - Field Test

26
cooperation with the German automobile club
“ADAC Niedersachsen/Sachsen-Anhalt”

agreement with local and federal authorities

scheduled for Spring 2004
“Carolo XL”,
wingspan 100 cm, mass 940 g
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
MAV “Carolo”,
wingspan 40 cm, mass 390 g
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
Carolo‘s Flight, December 2002
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
27
Journées Micro-Drones 2003
1st autonomous Flight, September 5th, 2003
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29
First European
Micro Air Vehicle Conference
and Flight Competition
EMAV 2004
Braunschweig, Germany
13 – 14 Juli 2004
organised by the
German Institute of Navigation
Aerospace Systems, University of Braunschweig
Journées Micro-Drones 2003

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