The Strengths and Limitations of Jeffersonian Democracy •

Report
The Strengths and Limitations of
Jeffersonian Democracy
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The USA in 1800
Jefferson and the Triumph of
Democracy
• Jefferson does not retaliate against the
Federalists
• Jeffersonian Democracy
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Farmer's interests are put first
Cities and Industry are nasty, let them
rot.
Debt Reduction
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Slashing the Military down to 3000 people
1800: $83 million
1809: $57 million
Land sales are key also
Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
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Are last minute appointments by Adams
valid?
Supreme Court says no but by doing so, it
establishes Judicial Review, the power to
interpret the Constitution
Louisiana Purchase
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Napoleon needs money to fight UK
Jefferson buys Louisiana for $15 million
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This violates his small government claims
But it will help farmers, so he doesn't care
about ideals.
Doubles size of the US
The USA in 1803
International Impotence
• American ships are seized in European wars
• The Chesapeake Incident
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1807: USS Chesapeake is attacked and
captured by the British to seize some of its
crew.
Jefferson demands apology, British refuse
Embargo Act (1807)
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Closes Sea Trade Until British and French
Apologize and Compensate Us
They ignore it and New England goes
broke
Jefferson overestimates US financial
influence
Tecumseh,
Head of the
Pan-Indian
Confederacy
Tecumseh
• Organizes alliance against settlers going
west
• Governor Harrison moves against him
– Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)
•
Tecumseh's allies are defeated and flee
The War Hawks
• Congress of 1810 wants war
–
Dominated by Frontiersmen and Britainhaters
• Ships still being seized
• US declares War in 1812
The USA in 1812
American Weaknesses
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Tiny Army
Poor Logistics and Supply
New England Militia Doesn't Want War
Weak Navy
Canadian Weaknesses
• Tiny Army
• Huge Front
• British Problems
– Distance
– Napoleonic Wars keep most troops in Europe.
The War of 1812
Initial Bungling (1812)
• Western Front
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General Hull is defeated, loses Detroit
• New York Disasters
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Battle of Queenstown Heights (October
13, 1812)
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US forces crushed horribly while Militia
watches, does nothing
Henry Dearborn = failure in north NY
• New England won't support war
The War at Sea
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US relies on
piracy by Navy
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Black sailors key
to Navy (25%)
–
Over 3000
merchant ships
captured by US or
UK
The USS
Constitution
The 1812 Election
Mixed Results (1813)
• Failure at Raisin River (January 1813)
• Commodore Perry's victory at Put-in-Bay
(September 10, 1813)
–
General William Henry Harrison—
Thames River (October 5, 1813) frees
Northwest; death of Tecumseh.
• The burning of York (April 27, 1813)
• Niagara dithering
• Failure in northern New York
British Counterattack (1814)
• Reinforcements from Europe
• NY: Battle of Plattsburgh (Naval) turns
back the invasion
• MD: Washington, DC is sacked and burned
by the British
–
Ft. McHenry holds off British navy at
Baltimore and they withdraw
The War of 1812 in the West
• The Creek War
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Red Stick Creeks ally with Tecumseh
General Andrew Jackson in charge
US allies with the Cherokee
Battle of Horseshoe Bend (March 1814)
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800 of 1000 Red Stick Creek die
Hartford Convention (December
15, 1814 to January 5, 1815)
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New England Federalists meet
Goal: Amend Constitution to prevent
future wars
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Remove 3/5ths clause
2/3rds majority for wars and embargos
End of War deflates convention
Federalists now collapse
Treaty of Ghent (December 24,
1814)
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Return to Pre-war status
No pre-war problems are settled or
resolved
War just ends
Battle of New Orleans
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Jackson commands Gulf Coast
Battle of New Orleans (January 8, 1815)
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4,000 Americans defeat 8/9,000 British
British lose 2,322
US loses 314
Jackson becomes a national hero
Aftermath
• Native American power is shattered
• US has stronger sense of nationalism
• We convince ourselves we TOTALLY won
the war.
Federalist Collapse
• After the war, the Federalists collapse
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Hartford Con. Ends up looking treasonous
Younger Federalists defect to Jefferson's
party
Economic Nationalism
• War shows need for improvements
• Policies:
– Harbor and Navigation improvements
– Road Construction
– Second National Bank (to provide credit)
– Tariffs to protect New England manufactures
Foreign Affairs
• John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State
(1817-1825)
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Anglo-American Accord (1818)
Settles border with Canada
FINALLY settles those old debts from the 1770s!
Trans-Continental Treaty of 1819
Settles border with Spain
Judicial Nationalism
• John Marshal (1801-35)
• Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
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Sanctity of Contract (despite land fraud)
• Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819)
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College charters are contracts, so can't
be broken!
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
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Can states tax the National Bank?
Marshall Court says no, because
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“the power to tax is the power to destroy”
Federal agencies not subject to state law
Crisis of 1820
• North is angry over War of 1812
• They try to block Missouri entering the Union as a slave
state
• Missouri Compromise
– Missouri: Slave state
– Maine: Free state
– Line drawn to divide territories for future
between slave and free
The Missouri Compromise
The Election of 1824
• Crawford
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Traditional Small Government
• Clay and Adams
• Time to Modernize--The American System
• Jackson
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Vote for me because I am a badass
Election Results
Popular Vote
• Jackson: 151, 271
• John Quincy
Adams: 113,122
• Crawford: 40,856
• Henry Clay:
47,351
Electoral Vote
• Jackson: 99
• John Quincy
Adams: 84
• Crawford: 41
• Henry Clay: 37
The 1824 Election
The Corrupt Bargain?
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Election goes to the House of
Representatives
Clay backs Adams
Adams appoints Clay as Secretary of State
Jackson accuses Adams of bribery; 'the
corrupt bargain'.

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