Chapter 7

Report
7
Gas-Fired
and NonGas-Fired
Structures
7
Knowledge Objectives (1 of 5)
• Identify the codes, standards, and guidelines to
consult when building a permanent live fire
training structure.
• Discuss how procedures and due diligence are
critical in ensuring safety in a permanent live
fire training structure.
• Describe the characteristics of a gas-fired live
fire training structure.
7
Knowledge Objectives (2 of 5)
• Discuss the policies that must be followed when
working in a gas-fired live fire training structure.
• Describe the characteristics of a non-gas-fired
live fire training structure.
• Discuss the policies that must be followed when
working in a non-gas-fired live fire training
structure.
7
Knowledge Objectives (3 of 5)
• Identify the general features in permanent live
fire training structures that assist in providing
realistic training evolutions.
• Identify the information that must be included in
the preburn plan.
• Describe how to create the emergency plan and
ensure that it is implemented correctly.
7
Knowledge Objectives (4 of 5)
• Describe how to ensure the safety of
spectators, media, and visitors.
• Describe how to ensure the water supply is
adequate for training evolutions.
• Describe how to ensure on-site facilities.
• Describe how to maintain permanent live fire
training structures.
7
Knowledge Objectives (5 of 5)
• Describe how to prepare a gas-fired live fire
training structure for a safe training evolution.
• Describe how to prepare a non-gas-fired live
fire training structure for a safe training
evolution.
• Describe how to ensure a safe ignition and burn
with a gas-fired system.
• Describe how to ensure a safe ignition with a
non-gas-fired system.
7
Skills Objectives
• Inspect and prepare a gas-fired live fire training
structure.
• Inspect and prepare a non-gas-fired live fire
training structure.
7
Introduction
• Two basic types of permanent live fire training
burn buildings
– Gas-fired
– Non-gas-fired
• NFPA 1403, Standard on Live Fire Training
Evolutions, covers the specific requirements for
both types of structures.
7
Code Requirements
• NFPA 1402, Guide to Building Fire Service
Training Centers, is the guideline to use when
building a new facility.
• A standard is not law unless adopted by the
authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) or
governmental authority.
7
Making and Enforcing the Rules
• Facility manager
– Ensures that concise
procedures are in place
• Procedures include
normal to emergency
activities.
• Some facilities post the
rules.
Courtesy of the Loudon County Department of Fire, Rescue, & Emergency
Management
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(1 of 11)
• Permanent live fire training structures: designed
to withstand repeated fires without incurring
damage
– Gas-fired live fire training structures: permanent
structures where burn sets are fueled by liquefied
petroleum gas (LPG) or propane
– Non-gas-fired live fire training structures:
permanent structures where fires are fueled by
Class A materials
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(2 of 11)
• Structures made of steel,
concrete, masonry construction
• Can be freestanding, part of a
training tower, or mobile
structure
• Built with extremely heatresistive material, allowing for
repetitive fires and extended use
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(3 of 11)
• Thermal shock: ceiling, walls,
floor surfaces heat unevenly
and expand; then rapidly,
unevenly are cooled by hose
streams.
• Newer facilities have insulation
panels and replaceable, nonload-bearing walls.
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(4 of 11)
• Gas-fired live fire training
structures
—Fueled with LPG or propane
gas
—Computer-controlled systems
evaluate conditions and shut
down if unsafe.
Courtesy of Kidde Fire Trainers, Inc.
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(5 of 11)
• Gas-fired live fire training
structures (cont.)
—Able to simulate specific scenarios
—Dead man switch can shut fire
down and initiate ventilation.
Courtesy of Kidde Fire Trainers, Inc.
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(6 of 11)
• Gas-fired live fire training policies
—Fuel and fire locations
—Heat ranges
—Types of scenarios
—Simultaneous training evolutions
—Staffing requirements
—Host personnel
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(7 of 11)
• Non-gas-fired live fire training structures
—Produce higher temperatures than gas-fired
structures
—Less expensive to build than gas-fired
—Lack safety controls found in gas-fired
—Many instructors find them more realistic.
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(8 of 11)
• Non-gas-fired live fire training
policies
– Fuels selected per NFPA 1403
and AHJ
– Follow specific fuel load amount
and staging policies.
– Set maximum temperature
levels.
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(9 of 11)
• Non-gas-fired live fire training policies (cont.)
– Locations and types of training evolutions
– Concurrent training evolutions allowed by NFPA
1403
– Staffing requirements follow NFPA 1403.
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures
(10 of 11)
• Temperature monitoring
– Relying too much on temperature reading is
dangerous.
– Many factors influence danger levels.
– Carefully monitor conditions.
7
Types of Live Fire Training Structures (11 of 11)
• Shipping containers
– Used with Class A fuels or gasfired systems
– Thermal liners protect container
from thermal shock.
– Need to comply with NFPA 1403
7
Features of Live Fire Training Structures
• Some features include:
– Car props
– Enclosed interior stairs
– Sound systems
– Realistic layouts
– Doors and windows
– Attic areas
– Ducted smoke distribution
– Roof vent props
7
Preburn Plan (1 of 6)
• The preburn plan needs to include:
– Specific objectives
– Who will participate
– Water supply
– Apparatus
– Rapid intervention crews/emergency procedures
– Incident management staffing/team organization
7
Preburn Plan (2 of 6)
• The preburn plan needs to include (cont.):
– Order of operations
– List of the training evolutions
– Assignments and rotation
– Communications plan
– Building plan
– Site plan
– Emergency medical plan
– Areas for staging, operating, parking
7
Preburn Plan (3 of 6)
• The preburn plan needs to include (cont.):
– Policy for use of personal protective equipment
(PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA)
– Checklist to confirm with agencies notified that
evolutions are to be conducted
– Requirements for other agencies
– Acceptable weather parameters
– Demobilization plan
– Policy/plan for spectators, media, visitors
7
Preburn Plan (4 of 6)
• Participants must walk through structure.
• Emergency plan requires rapid intervention
crews to be in place.
• Building evacuation plan must be known by all.
• Spectators to be kept away from operations
7
Preburn Plan (5 of 6)
• Instructor-in-charge
determines water flow
needs.
• On-site facilities, such as
restrooms and lights, are
essential.
Courtesy of Robert Hernandez, Miami-Dade Fire Rescue
7
Preburn Plan (6 of 6)
• Instructor-in-charge and safety officer check
inspection records.
• NFPA 1403 requires engineer with live fire
training structure experience and expertise.
• Structures are evaluated for safety.
• If structural damage is severe enough to affect
safety of participants, live fire training is not
permitted.
7
Preparation (1 of 8)
•
•
•
•
Check proximity to other structures.
Identify adjacent properties.
Identify and designate parking areas.
Identify fire-ground location for press and
spectators.
7
Preparation (2 of 8)
• Preparation and inspection
– Look for signs of lack of structural integrity.
– Check doors and windows for easy operation.
– Search structure for unauthorized persons, animals,
objects.
– Check stairs and railings.
– Check roof vent.
– Look for any debris.
– Damage should be documented.
7
Preparation (3 of 8)
• Preparation and inspection (cont.)
– If damage is significant, training not permitted
– All devices checked and operated prior to evolution
– Awareness of weather conditions
– Sources of ignition or unidentified materials
removed
– Check burn set locations or gas-fired systems.
7
Preparation (4 of 8)
• Instructors run gas-fired props and systems
with students to ensure correct operation.
• Instructors must:
– Be familiar with fire room environment
– Not place anything on gas-fired props
– Watch for debris
7
Preparation (5 of 8)
• Inspection of non-gas-fired live fire training
structures includes:
– Visual inspection of the structure
– Adjacent properties identified and informed of date
and time of training evolution
– Streets or highways surveyed
– Instructor-in-charge documents fuel loading.
– Identify exact burn locations.
7
Preparation (6 of 8)
• Inspection of non-gas-fired live fire training
structures includes (cont.):
– Excessive fuel load contributes to conditions of
dangerous fire behavior.
– Ensure primary and secondary exit paths do not
conflict with expected fire spread.
– Burn set placed in a corner of room
– Burn set cannot be located in exit path.
7
Preparation (7 of 8)
• Inspection of non-gas-fired
live fire training structures
includes (cont.):
– No burn room used that does
not have two separate means
of egress
– Hearths, fireboxes, steel
drawer, large pan can be used.
7
Preparation (8 of 8)
• Inspection of non-gas-fired live fire training
structures includes (cont.):
– Use Class A materials only.
– NFPA 1403 allows concurrent, multiple fires in
permanent non-gas-fired live fire training structures.
7
Operations (1 of 3)
• Operations in permanent live fire training
structures require less personnel; less laborintensive than acquired structures.
– Still need to follow considerations and perform a
walk-through
• Instructors must be qualified by the AHJ.
• Ignition decisions made by instructor-in-charge
and safety officer.
– Follow Go/No Go sequence.
7
Operations (2 of 3)
• Gas-fired systems have
automatic ignition
systems.
– Instructor must visually
confirm burn area is clear
of personnel.
– Communication is critical.
7
Operations (3 of 3)
• Non-gas-fired systems
– Setup of burn rooms and ignition process follow
same procedures as acquired structures.
– Nobody can operate inside the structure alone.
7
Overhaul
• Once evolutions complete:
– Check for injuries.
– Check for damage to PPE and SCBA.
– Report any damage, deficiencies, and repairs
needed.
– Leave facility in a safe condition.
7
Summary (1 of 2)
• Use of permanent live fire training structures
reduces chance of problems that occur in
acquired structures.
• They are designed to withstand repeated fires
without incurring damage.
• Gas-fired structures are fueled with liquefied
petroleum gas or propane.
• Non-gas-fired structures produce higher
temperatures than gas-fired structures.
7
Summary (2 of 2)
• Develop preburn plan.
• Fire structure must be properly maintained and
structural integrity inspected once a year.
• Fire structure is inspected for hazards and
prepared before training evolutions.
• Safety is crucial.

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