CFI Workshop 7 - Stick-n

Report
FAASTeam
CFI Workshop 7
Module 7, Core Topics 13 and 14:
- Effective Teaching
- FAA / Industry Training
Standards – FITS
Presented to: Instructors and Pilot Examiners
By: The FAASTeam
Date: April 1 to June 30, 2010
Federal Aviation
Administration
FAASTeam CFI Workshop 7
Module 7 – Core Topic 13
Effective Teaching:
• Understanding how people think and learn
• The “art of teaching”
• Psychological understanding / people skills
Are all of your students registered at FAASafety.gov?
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Core Topic 13 (Effective Teaching)
Objectives
• Review attributes of an effective pilot who is
also an effective instructor.
• Discuss barriers to learning and student
psychological and physiological needs.
• Further develop and demonstrate the required
knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to be an
effective instructor.
• Introduce teaching methodologies used to help
develop critical thinking skills for the instructor
and pilot-in-training.
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The Teaching Profession for Pilots
• Aviators Model Code of Conduct found at
http://www.secureaviation.org/
• Aviation Instructor’s Handbook, found at
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/han
dbooks_manuals/
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Goals of Teaching
• Provide the atmosphere for students to
become seekers of information, not merely
receptacles of information
• Be serious without creating excessive stress
• Have a flexible teaching plan in mind, but be
ever on the lookout for the "teachable
moment"
• Be positive toward trainees - guard against
sending unintentional messages (disdain,
condescension, racism, sexism, etc.).
• Be confident (not arrogant) and comfortable
in not knowing everything.
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The Instructor
• Your personality shapes your teaching style
• All teachers need practice teaching
• Good flight instructors work at being good pilots
and good teachers
• Good instructors are constantly looking for
ways to improve
• Teaching techniques must change with
changes in the aviation industry and
environment (e.g. NextGen)
•
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The Learner (Pilot-in Training)
• Teaching style must incorporate different
techniques for different trainees and different
settings
• Set expectations with trainee
• Barriers to learning:
–
–
–
–
Boredom
Stress
Fatigue
Lack of motivations
• Motivational techniques
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Instructional Format
• The use of multiple instructional formats aids in
meeting the variety of course objectives and
enhances learning for the pilot-in-training
• Common instructional formats in aviation:
– Independent reading, lecture, computer-assisted
instruction, demonstration, group discussion
• Common instructional tools in aviation:
– Part task trainers, flight training devices, flight
simulators, aircraft
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Effective Teaching Techniques
• A new approach to teaching should be tried when it has
been shown to be valid and reliable
• State what should be learned
• Situate the topic in context
• Involve trainees in the process by having them, present
the problem, respond to questions, summarize the
findings and discussion, and research and report on
unanswered questions
• Use questions effectively
• Have trainee summarize the "take-home" points at the
end of the discussion/activity
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Trainee Evaluations
• Student-centered grading
• Evaluate the trainee’s conceptual knowledge
and critical thinking skills
• Rote (“Describe”) learning vs. Understanding
(Explain); Application (Practice, Perform);
Correlation (Manage/Decide)
• Situational evaluations vs. training to the test
• Valid and reliable measures
• Evidence of learning
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The Process of Learning
• Critical thinking - the use of those cognitive skills or
strategies that increase the probability of a desirable
outcome
• Reflective thinking - a part of the critical thinking
process referring specifically to the processes of
analyzing and making judgments about what has
happened
– Learners are aware of and control their learning by actively
assessing what they know, what they need to know, and how
they bridge that gap – during learning situations
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Scenario-Based Training
• What is scenario-based training?
• Why do we need it?
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The “New” Flight Test Guide (1973)
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The “New” Instrument Rating
Practical Test Standards (2010)
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Example Practical Test Standards
Introduction
In preparation for each practical test, the examiner shall develop a
written “plan of action” for each practical test. The “plan of action”
is a tool, for the sole use of the examiner, to be used in evaluating
the applicant. The plan of action need not be grammatically
correct or in any formal format. The plan of action must contain all
of the required AREAS OF OPERATION and TASKS and any
optional TASKS selected by the examiner. The plan of action will
include a scenario that allows the evaluation of as many required
AREAS OF OPERATION
and TASKS as possible without
disruption. During the mission the examiner interjects problems
and emergencies which the applicant must manage. It should be
structured so that most of the AREAS OF OPERATION and
TASKS are accomplished within the mission.
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Guidance for Scenario-Based
Evaluations – FAA Order 8900.2
• Found on FAA’s Flight Standards
Information System (FSIMS) at
http://fsims.faa.gov/wdocs/orders/8900_2
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A Real Scenario
• NTSB Report DCA07MA00
–
–
–
–
October 11, 2006
Crash During Turn Maneuver
Cirrus SR-20, N929CD
Manhattan, New York City
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NTSB Probable Cause:
• The National Transportation Safety Board
determines that the probable cause of this
accident was the pilots’ inadequate planning,
judgment, and airmanship in the performance
of a 180º turn maneuver inside of a limited
turning space.
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The Rest of the Story
• How can you relate this accident scenario to
the “art” of teaching?
• What are the technical and non-technical
skills involved in this event?
• Design a training scenario that you think
could have prevented this accident.
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop 7
Module 7, Core Topic #13
Questions?
Comments?
Ideas?
Quiz time ~
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1. Which factor(s) affect perception?
a. Physical Organism
b. Goals and values
c. Self –concept
d. Time and opportunity
e. Element of threat
f. All of the above -
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2. Rate the levels of learning from low to high:
a. Correlation, Rote, Understanding, Application
b. Rote, Understanding, Application, Correlation
c. Understanding, Rote, Application, Correlation
d. Application, Rote, Understanding, Correlation
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3. What is learning?
4. Correlation is the lowest form of learning.
True or False
Answers Follow –
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5. Which of the following are characteristics of
a good test?
a. Validity
b. Usability
c. Objectivity
d. Comprehensiveness
e. Discrimination
f. All of the above
Answers Follow:
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1. Which factor(s) affect perception?
a. Physical Organism
b. Goals and values
c. Self –concept
d. Time and opportunity
e. Element of threat
f. All of the above
f. - Aviation Instructor’s Handbook
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2. Rate the levels of learning from low to high:
a. Correlation, Rote, Understanding, Application
b. Rote, Understanding, Application, Correlation
c. Understanding, Rote, Application, Correlation
d. Application, Rote, Understanding, Correlation
b. – Aviation Instructor’s Handbook
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3. What is learning?
Learning is defined as a change in behavior as a
result of experience. - Aviation Instructor's
Handbook, page 2-2
4. Correlation is the lowest form of learning.
True or False
False; Rote is the lowest form of learning –
Aviation Instructor’s Handbook, page 4-29
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5. Which of the following are characteristics of
a good test?
a. Validity
b. Usability
c. Objectivity
d. Comprehensiveness
e. Discrimination
f. All of the above
f. All of the above plus, Reliability - Aviation Instructor’s
Handbook (FAA-H-8083-9A) Page 5-4, 5
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop #7
Take a Break!
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop 7
Module 7 – Core Topic 14
FAA/Industry Training Standards
FITS:
• A voluntary partnership between FAA, industry,
and academia.
• Scenario-based, learner-focused training.
• More convenient, more accessible training.
• Non-regulatory and incentive driven.
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Core Topic 14 (FITS) Objectives
• Understand what the purpose of FITS.
• Become familiar with current FITS type
training programs.
• Review the development and use of
scenario-based training.
• Apply student-centered instructional skills
to teaching and evaluating.
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FITS Overview
•
•
•
•
What is FITS?
Why do we need FITS?
Who is involved with FITS?
How can you involved?
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What is FITS?
• For FAA-Industry Training Standards training
applications go to:
http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/training/fits/
then select:
– > FTIS Training and Curriculums (left menu)
– > Flight Instructor Training Module (select)
– > Volume 1, 2, and 3 (FITS Training Volumes)
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What is FITS?
• FAA-Industry Training Standards
• http://wtww.faa.gov/training_testing/training
/fits/
• Non-regulatory (similar to Part 121 Airline
Advanced Qualification Program)
• Originally conceived to be “a structured
way to teach pilots to safely, competently,
and efficiently operate a technically
advanced piston or light jet aircraft”
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FITS Mission Statement
• Improve pilot learning to safely,
competently, and efficiently operate a
technically advanced piston or light jet
aircraft in the modern National Airspace
System (NAS).
• Implement training that reduces the human
error element and accelerates acquisition of
higher-level judgment and decision-making
skills.
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Who is Involved in FITS?
•
•
•
•
Manufacturers
Training providers
Insurance
Associations
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History Leading to FITS
• Pilot training has not evolved much in 60
years (Tom Glista, 2008)
• Technology outpaces training
• Accident/incident causal factors show pilots
not keeping up with the automation or over
dependence on automated functions
• Training science has developed new ways
to teach highly complex skills
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Examples of FITS Courses
• Generic
•
•
•
•
•
Transition
Recurrent
Private/Instrument
Instructor
Avionics (GPS, MFD, and Glass Panel)
• Specific
• Garmin 430/530
• MTSU Private/Instrument
• Documents
•
•
•
•
•
FITS Criteria
Learner -centered grading
Levels of FITS acceptance
Designated Examiner’s Guide
Articles
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Benefits of FITS Training
• Originally targeted Technically Advanced
Aircraft (TAA’s)
• Now used as a more efficient way to keep
up with:
– Changes in National Airspace System
– Advances in equipment design
– Need for more qualified pilots for commercial
operations
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Benefits of FITS Training
Part 141 Pilot School
• Approved curriculum
• “Reduced” training hours
• Traditional checkride
FAA/Industry Training
Standards (FITS)
• Scenario-based training
• Emphasis on technically
advanced aircraft (TAA) and
simulation
• Student-centered grading
Advanced Qualification
Program (AQP)
•
•
•
•
Approved curriculum
“Reduced” training events
Maneuvers validation
Performance-based
evaluations
• Line Oriented Flight Training
(LOFT)
• Emphasis on simulation
• Crew-centered debriefings
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Role of Simulation in FITS
• High utilization of simulators
• Review simulator qualifications
• How to teach in simulators and training
devices
• ICAO Multi Crew Pilot License analogy
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Safety Record of TAA
• NTSB March 2010 safety study:
– Analyzed accident rates of over 8,000 small pistonpowered airplanes manufactured between 2002 and
2006
– Found that those equipped with glass cockpits had a
higher fatal accident rate than similar aircraft with
conventional instruments
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Why?
• The Safety Board determined that because
glass cockpits are both complex and vary from
aircraft to aircraft in function, design and failure
modes, pilots are not always provided with all
of the information they need – both by aircraft
manufacturers and the Federal Aviation
Administration – to adequately understand the
unique operational and functional details of the
primary flight instruments in their airplanes.
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NTSB 830
• 3/08/2010 Change for immediate notification
• “A complete loss of information, excluding
flickering, from more than 50 percent of an
aircraft’s cockpit displays known as:
– Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) displays;
Other displays of this type, which generally include a
primary flight display (PFD), primary navigation
display (PND), and other integrated displays...”
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Crew Resource Management (CRM)/
Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM)
•
•
•
•
•
Communication
Decision making
Situational awareness
Workload management
Resource management
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Automation Training
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Automation Management
Autoflight vs. manual flight philosophy
Flight management systems
EFIS displays and symbology
Autopilot modes
Flight mode annunciations
Flight guidance systems
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Does FITS Work?
• Many manufacturers use FITS courses for
their transition training
• Research studies indicate that FITS trained
pilots have fewer setbacks in training than
traditional program trainees
• More studies are underway to evaluate the
FITS programs
• How can you get involved with FITS?
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FAASTeam CFI Workshop #7
Module 7, Core Topic 14
Questions?
Comments?
Ideas?
Quiz time ~
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6. What is FITS?
7. What training standards are required for persons
authorized to work on my aircraft and approve it for
return to service?
8. FITS is a regulatory approach.
True or False
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9. FITS is:
a. An FAA mandatory training requirement for operation
a technically advanced aircraft.
b. A program that creates scenario based, learner
focused training materials.
c. An approved method of developing skills to manage
TAA aircraft.
d. An FAA approved method of training.
10. Most major aircraft manufacturers use FITS –
certified syllabi for their transition-training
programs.
True or False
Answers Follow –
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6. What is FITS?
FITS programs create scenario-based, learnerfocused training methods that encourage practical
application of knowledge and skills.
- faa.gov, page on FAA/Industry Training Standards
(FITS)
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7. What training standards are required for persons
authorized to work on my aircraft and approve it
for return to service?
Technicians/ mechanics must satisfy experience
requirements established by the FARs to be eligible
for a mechanic certificate, or have graduated from an
FAA certified aviation maintenance technical school.
- FAR 65, subsection 65.77 (a), (b).
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8. FITS is a regulatory approach.
True or False
False - FITS training and support CD
9. FITS is:
a. An FAA mandatory training requirement for operation a
technically advanced aircraft.
b. A program that creates scenario based, learner
focused training materials.
c. An approved method of developing skills to manage
TAA aircraft.
d. An FAA approved method of training.
b. – FITS training and support CD
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10. Most major aircraft manufacturers use FITS –
certified syllabi for their transition-training
programs.
True or False
True – AOPA Pilot of July 2006
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This Completes
CFI Workshop Module #7
with our sincere thanks to author Dr. Janeen Kochan
Be sure to have your attendance record validated!
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