States of Consciousness

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What is consciousness?
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Fact or Falsehood?
T F 1. Consciousness has an unlimited capacity.
T F 2. Most university students are “evening” persons whose
performance improves throughout the day.
T F 3. People who sleep seven to eight hours a night tend to outlive
those who are chronically sleep-deprived.
T F 4. The most common dreams are those with sexual imagery.
T F 5. The majority of the characters in men’s dreams are female.
T F 6. Most psychologists believe that dreams provide a key to
understanding our inner conflicts.
T F 7. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform feats they
would otherwise find impossible.
T F 8. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform acts they
would otherwise find immoral.
T F 9. Those given morphine to control pain often become addicted
to the drug.
T F 10. In large amounts, alcohol is a depressant; in small amounts,
it is a stimulant.
1. F (p. 272) 6. F (pp. 287–288)
2. T (p. 275) 7. F (p. 291)
3. T (p. 281) 8. F (p. 292)
4. F (p. 286) 9. F (p. 297)
5. F (p. 286) 10. F (p. 298)
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Our level of awareness of ourselves and our
environment
We are conscious to the degree we are aware
of what is going on inside and outside
ourselves.
Much of consciousness is outside our
awareness
◦ Beginner driver
◦ Advanced driver
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We are not conscious or unconscious!
There are different levels and different states
of consciousness.
More sophisticated brain imaging tools and
an increased emphasis on cognitive
psychology = more study
Conscious – What are you focusing on right
now?
Nonconscious – Heartbeat, respiration,
digestion, etc
Preconscious – you are not currently
thinking about it, but you could be
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3.
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Your favorite toy as a child
Your first day of school
Cont’d
4. Subconscious level – Information that we
are not consciously aware of but we know
must exist due to behavior.
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5.
Priming, mere exposure(we prefer stimuli we have
been exposed to over novel stimuli ) and
blindsight
Unconscious – Some events are
unacceptable to our conscious mind are are
repressed into the unconscious mind.
DEBATEABLE!
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Which level of consciousness does it fit?
Explain
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While we are asleep, we are less aware of
ourselves and our environment than when we
are awake.
Other states of consciousness are druginduced states, hypnosis,etc
Life has rhythmic tides. They include
A. Annual cycles – geese migrate, bears
hibernate and humans experience seasonal
variations in appetite, sleep and
mood.(seasonal affective disorder)
B. 28 day menstrual cycles – check out mood
score on p. 274
C. 24 hour cycles – varying alertness, body
temp and growth hormone secretion
D. 90 minute cycles – sleep stages
Circadian Rhythm
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Our bodies synchronize with the 24-hour cycle of
the day
Sharpest thinking, memory most accurate
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At our circadian peak
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Most college students are owls
Most older adults are larks
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http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?
guidAssetId=2AE63A7D-2DC7-408C-9A8D4DC34A4B57E8&blnFromSearch=1&productcode
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Drink caffeine late in the day
Adjusting sleep schedule
◦ Pull an all-nighter
◦ Stay up late on weekends and sleep until noon or
later!
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Transcontinental Flights
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http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4
181992n&tag=contentMain;contentBody
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Stage 1 sleep onset
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Brain produces alpha waves
Drowsy but awake
Might experience hallucinations (falling)
We don’t know we are in sleep until we are out of
it!
Stage 2
› EEG shows sleep spindles (short bursts of rapid
brain waves
› Relax more deeply and are clealry asleep
› Sleeptalking can happen (garbled speech)
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Stage 3
◦ Delta waves (large, slow waves)
◦ Last about 30 min, you are hard to awaken, but still
conscious:
 Roll around without falling out of bed
 Don’t crush infant sleeping with you, unless drunk
◦ Sleep through loud noises
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Stage 4
◦ Delta waves
◦ 30 minutes long
◦ Bedwetting, sleepwalking occur
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Very difficult to awaken someone
Will be disoriented and groggy
Important in replenishing body’s chemical
supplies (hormones)
Increased exercise increases time we spend in
stages 3 & 4
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After Delta sleep we go back through stages
3, 2, 1.
In stage 1, brain produces intense activity:
Eyes dart back and forth, muscles twitch =
REM
Sometimes called paradoxical sleep
◦ Brain waves appear awake!
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Dreams usually occur
Deprivation of REM interferes with memory
More stress during day = more REM sleep
that night
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We cycle through these approx 90 minute
stage 4-7 times each night
Closer to morning, more time in stage 1,2,
and REM
Babies sleep more (18 hours) and have more
Functions of Sleep: Discovery Education
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60-3D62-49FA-BEF95EA2215CA8AF&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
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http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=C79C
B160-3D62-49FA-BEF95EA2215CA8AF&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
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Insomnia- most common disorder
◦ Persistent getting to sleep or staying asleep
◦ Cure: reduce caffeine, exercise, maintain
consistent sleep pattern
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Narcolepsy
◦ Periods of intense sleepiness, can fall asleep at
unpredictable times
◦ Treatment – medication and changing sleep
patterns (naps)
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Sleep Apnea
◦ Serious problem, may cause death
◦ Person stops breathing, wakes slightly, gasps for
air, goes back to sleep
◦ Robs person of deep sleep = poor attention and
poor memory
◦ Usually overweight men
◦ Treatment: respiration machine provides air
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Night Terrors and Sleep walking
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Mostly in children
Don’t remember episode
Occur during stage 4 sleep
Grow out of them
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Lack of concentration, depression
Hunger and obesity
Fatal accidents
Irritability, mistakes
Slowed reaction times (20% of traffic
accidents)
Suppresses immune system
Feelings of boredom
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Am I Sleep Deprived?
Respond to each of the following items by circling “T” for true or “F” for false.
T F 1. I need an alarm clock in order to wake up at the appropriate time.
T F 2. It’s a struggle for me to get out of bed in the morning.
T F 3. Weekday mornings I hit the snooze button several times to get more
sleep.
T F 4. I feel tired, irritable, and stressed-out during the week.
T F 5. I have trouble concentrating and remembering.
T F 6. I feel slow with critical thinking, problem solving, and being creative.
T F 7. I often fall asleep watching TV.
T F 8 I often fall asleep in boring meetings or lectures or in warm rooms.
T F 9. I often fall asleep after heavy meals or after a low dose of alcohol.
T F 10. I often fall asleep while relaxing after dinner.
T F 11. I often fall asleep within five minutes of getting into bed.
T F 12. I often feel drowsy while driving.
T F 13. I often sleep extra hours on weekend mornings.
T F 14. I often need a nap to get through the day.
T F 15. I have dark circles around my eyes.

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