Ch.7 Guided Reading Answersx

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Ch. 7
Immigration and
Industrialization
Guided Reading
Answers
Italy, AustriaHungary, Russia,
Greece, Turkey,
Armenia
China, Japan
Mexico, Jamaica,
Cuba, Puerto Rico,
other islands in the
West Indies
1. Native-born spoke English
2. Native-born tended to have ancestors
from Northern-Western Europe
3. Native-born Americans tended to be
Caucasian
4. Native-born Americans tended to be
Protestant
Escape religious
persecution,
overpopulation, find
good farmland, jobs,
freedom
To make money,
to seek their
fortunes, to mine
gold, to find
better paying jobs
To find work, lived
in territories taken
by the US; to flee
political turmoil
x
x
x
x
x
1. Non-English speakers
2. New immigrants came from other parts
of the world. Southern – Eastern Europe
3. Many new immigrants were Asian.
4. Many new immigrants were Catholics
or Jews
Chinese Exclusion Act excluded Chinese immigrants starting in 1882 for
10 years, then it was revisited and continued until 1892, then until 1943. Exceptions- students,
teachers, merchants.
Gentlemen’s Agreement – Japanese school children in SF were segregated, Japan protested,
President Roosevelt stepped in to broker the Gentlemen’s Agreement which limited Japanese
workers to America in exchange for desegregation.
Cities cheaper and more convenient; ethnic neighborhoods
and cultural opportunities not found in rural areas
Fewer farm laborers needed because of new technology; believed jobs
could be found in cities; cultural opportunities not found in rural areas.
Fewer farm laborers needed because of new technology; believed jobs
could be found in cities; hope of less racial violence and political
oppression than in the South; cultural opportunities not found in rural
areas.
Construction of mass-transit networks, based on new forms of
transportation as cable cars, electric streetcars, and electric railways
Chlorination and filtration
Sewer lines and sanitation departments
Full-time professional fire departments and the automatic sprinklers;
replacement of many wooden buildings with ones made of brick, stone,
and concrete.
Full-time professional police departments
Urbanization – growth of cities. Social Gospel Movement –
preached salvation through service to the poor. Settlement houses community centers in slum
neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially the immigrants; Jane Addams – one
of the most influential members of the Settlement house movement
Supported reform; named independents to his
cabinet; set up a commission to investigate customhouses;
fired 2 top officials of the New York customhouse
The reformers
Supported reform; urged Congress to pass
a civil service law (the Pendleton Act).
Authorized a bipartisan civil
service commission to make appointments based on merit
rather than on spoils
Supported low tariff; tried to convince
Congress to lower rates; ran for a second term on a low tariff
platform
Supported a high tariff; won passage of the
McKinley Tariff Act, which raised tariffs to their highest level
ever.
They were lowered
They were
raised.
An organized group of
people that control the activities of a political party in a city.
“Looking Backward”
By John Keppler
“The Immigrant Dumping Ground”
“ Who Stole?”
“Let Us Prey”
“ ’Twas him”
The Problem(s)
•Beginning at the end of the Civil War, the US Government
became interested in groups such as Big Business. Big Business
started to influence and take control over the Government.
•Politicians started to accept bribes from these groups because
they would help them out financially in donations called
Campaign Contributions.•
•Leaders of political parties all over the United States had control
over politicians at every level of the government. They had the
final say about who ran for political office.
•People voted in public so election frauds were common. It was
very easy to tell who a person voted for because the ballots were
different colors.
•A lot of the government jobs were controlled by the people
elected into office. Mayors, governors, and The President would
give jobs to their supporters. This was called the spoils system.
•In 1883 the Pendleton Act was passed which gave The
President even more power to appoint officials of his choice to
federal jobs.
•Until 1930, parties called political machines were prevalent. They
would abuse their power and try to get others to vote their way by
bribing. They would use money to bribe and give rewards to
whoever followed directions. These groups met at Tammany Hall
in New York City.
The Solution(s)
•The main proposal to solve the problem of
government corruption was to give the people
more control over the government.
•The voters, instead of the officials already in office
will have more say in who will run for elected
office.
•People were given the power to remove an
elected official from office if they went against their
wishes.
•Recall elections could be held if the people
formed a petition.
•If people wanted a law enacted, they could
present it to the legislature to be proposed as a
new law.
•The limit of one term was considered for the
president because he then would not have to
worry about reelection.
•Whenever political parties received donations,
they had to make the source public.
•Voting would be private to limit the possibility of
pressure at the ballots.
"Thomas Nast, an important political cartoonist in 19thcentury America, was known for exposing government
corruption. This 1871 cartoon illustrates the Tammany Hall
scandal by depicting William Marcy "Boss" Tweed and his ring
as vultures."
"G.H. Pendleton is perhaps best remembered for his
opposition to Abraham Lincoln's policies during the Civil War.
In the 1864 election, Pendleton was the oppositional vice
presidential candidate, on the Democratic ticket with George
B. McClellan." He was elected for the Senate in 1878 for
Ohio. He was chair of the Civil Service Committee. He became
popular in the Civil Service Reform Act.
"Tammany Hall, located on West 14th Street in New York City,
ca. 1914. Tammany Hall was the meeting place for, and popular
name of, the Democratic Party political machine that
dominated much of New York City's political life until 1933."
[Library of Congress]
"An undated portrait of William Marcy Tweed,
better known as Boss Tweed. As the head of
Tammany Hall, the U.S. Democratic Party
organization in New York City, Tweed became
infamous for his greed and arrogant abuse of
political power." [Library of Congress] Abusing
power was very common during the age of
progression. Many politicians would receive bribes
and sneak under the law.
Definition
Americanization Movement
assimilation
Chinese Exclusion Act
consolidation
conservation
demographics
Ellis Island
industrialism
initiative
Jim Crow Laws
Meat Inspection Act
monopoly
muckrakers
NAACP
nativism
patronage
Plessy v. Ferguson
political machine
progressivism
Pure Food & Drug Act
recall
referendum
segregation
social Darwinism
suffrage
tariff
tenements
The Jungle
trusts
urban
rural
urbanization
vertical trust
horizontal trust
xenophobia

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