The “3 Ps” Method: Intercultural Inquiry and “3rd Place” Experiences Sabine H. Smith Kennesaw State University Kennesaw, GA CERCLL Preparing and Supporting K-16 Language Teachers to Teach for Intercultural Competence in and beyond the Classroom Tucson, AZ 1/25/2014 Streets in the Sky: The Balconies of Lima and the Road to Intercultural Competence Sabine H. Smith, Ph.D. Associate Professor of German and Miriam Bley, M.A. Lecturer of Foreign Language Education & Spanish Department of Foreign Languages Kennesaw State University 02/24/2012 Internationalizing the Campus Through Ongoing Country-specific Programming The “Year Of ” Program at Kennesaw State University Mission: The Country Study Program provides audiences with a rich, complex, interconnected sense of place and community. It represents an effective strategy that fits into a broader institution-wide commitment to strengthening global learning on our campus. The program takes a wide-ranging look at a specific country or region from its earliest history to current events. The program allows participants to break down stereotypes and connect across cultures. Year of Kenya ‘07: International Conference & Investment Forum on "The Role of the Kenyan Diaspora in Kenya's Development,” 2003 The Year of Spain Method • Countries/regions selected via campus-wide survey and through an executive committee. • A year in advance, a committee meets to discuss programming. • Individual committee members assist with making contacts with lecturers, artists, community members, and consular officials and well as foreign partners. Year of Turkey ’08: over 40 papers were presented and one of the keynote addresses was delivered by Ambassador Mark Parris, formerly U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, on the subject "Prospects for U.S.-Turkish Relations under President Obama.” History • Began in 1984-85 with the Year of Japan and has attracted regional and national attention. • Grown over years from just a handful of events to weekly events from August to April. Includes special events like the “Year of “ Day or conferences. • A 23 year history, including Japan ‘84, the Soviet Union ‘86, Sub-Saharan Africa ‘92, Germany ‘93, Israel ’98, Spain ’03, Turkey ’08, and Ghana ’12. • During the year, a faculty learning committee meets to discuss a range of topics and literature, culminating in a trip to the country under discussion. • Events are linked to credit-bearing courses (both special topics and degree-required courses). Faculty are encouraged to bring classes to “Year Of “ events and to design course modules related to the country. • Program elements include: Lectures, performances, exhibits and films, KSU 1101 freshmen common reader and themed learning community, involvement of international students from the country of study. Year of Korea 2009: Zither Musician’s Association Dragon Boat racing during the Year of China – KSU now participates annually. The team involves both U.S. and Chinese students and faculty. Results • Frequently study abroad programs are developed as a result of new partnerships. • “Year Of “ events give students, faculty and staff an opportunity to learn about new cultures, showcase their native culture, and reconnect with cultures with which they are familiar. • Increased knowledge on behalf of participants regarding their role in global society and enhanced experiences interacting productively with people from other nations and cultural backgrounds. Research Question: “In what ways does intercultural inquiry anchored in discipline-based methodology help advance intercultural competence in undergraduate learners?” Presentation Overview: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ACTFL Standards for the Profession The “3 Ps” and Intercultural Inquiry The “3 Ps” and ICC Development Opportunities and Limitations of the “3 Ps” Sample Assignments: 1. English-language survey course 2. German Studies film course 6. Conclusion 1. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages ACTFL Standards (1996, 3rd ed. 2012) The 5 Cs: • CULTURES • COMPARISONS American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages CULTURES: Gain Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures 2.1. Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied. 2.2. Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages COMPARISONS Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture 4.1: Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own. 4.2: Students demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own. ACTFL Standards and the ”3Ps” • Cultural products • Cultural practices • Cultural perspectives 2. The “3 Ps” and Intercultural Inquiry: • • • • Comparing sets of 3 Ps from 2+ cultures A triangulated approach to understanding culture Decentralizing the US viewpoint Culture-specific and culture-general approach Peru and Germany: The “3 Ps” of Food Peru and Germany: The “3 Ps” of Beverages Peru and Germany: The “3 Ps” of Textiles The “3 Ps” in triangulated comparison 3. The “3 Ps” and ICC Development: • • • • • • Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Integration Julien Peyre, AFS France (2011) 3. The “3 Ps” and ICC Development: • Engaging diverse learners • Opportunities for discovery-based learning 4. The “3 Ps”: Opportunities and Limitations • Cultural products – What is it? • Cultural practices – What do they do? • Cultural perspectives – What are underlying values? the iceberg metaphor to understanding culture? (Hall, 1976) The “3 Ps” and Culture: Milton J. Bennett (2013): “Culture is not like an iceberg” “It's time to retire the image altogether.” an alternative metaphor: hiking a mountain? The “3 Ps” and ICC Non-linear process model Primacy of attitudes Knowledge Skills Communication/Behavior Deardorff (2006) The “3 Ps” and ICC: “3rd Place” Experiences Claire Kramsch (1993) 5. Sample Assignments: • • • • • “3 Ps” in an English-language survey course Intercultural comparisons of “3 Ps” sets Triangulation “3rd Place” experiences in and outside class Student samples (Hawaii, Cambodia) Student Sample “3 Ps” set: Cultural Product: : Hawaii’s Surfboard • • • • They split the Koa Log from the sides to form surfboard. Koa woods property is very hard but also brittle making it very simple to make a clean cut. Shaping the Koa cut out with an adz (a special tool used for shaping the surfboard attached to a wooden handle with coconut senet) The surfboard then is smoothened with coral blocks, charring with fire and scraping. Then rubbing the surface with different types of sand as well as sanding it with water and sharkskin A coat of Kukui nut oil is applied to surfboard. Student Sample “3 Ps” set: Practice/Perspective: Riding Waves Surfing was a spiritual event, from the art of riding waves itself, to praying for good surf, to rituals surrounding building a surfboard. Surfing was based on social class. Conflict resolution. Surfing helped train Hawaiian chiefs. Surfing was almost lost in the 20th century. Student Sample “3 Ps” set: Khmer, Cambodia • Product: Ritual dance • Practice: Dancers used as messengers to gods • Perspective: Wishes and prayers granted http://youtu.be/sf6Fa QM6ICs Student Sample “3 Ps” set: Khmer, Cambodia • Product: Carved stone • Practice: Entertain gods and Khmer ideals • Perspective: Rebirth of culture Sample Assignments: • • • • • “3 Ps” in a German Studies film course Intercultural comparisons of “3 Ps” sets Transcultural narrative Romeo and Juliet “3rd Place” experiences in and outside class “3rd Place” experiences for instructor & students Kein anderer deutscher Film – Kaffee mit Herta – Der brennende Bube (2013) “3 Ps” in a German Studies film course: Sommer vorm Balkon (2005) Transcultural narrative: Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet (1591-95) Verona, Italy 13th Century West Side Story NYC (1957, 1961) The “3 Ps” & “3rd Place“ experiences: The balcony as interstitial site 6. Conclusion: • “3 Ps” method • Intercultural comparisons • Triangulation • “3rd Place” experiences A replicable approach? References: • • • • • • • Bennett, M. J. (1993). A Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity. Retrieved from http://www.library.wisc.edu/EDVRC/docs/public/pdfs/SEEDReadings/intCulSens.pdf Byram, M. (2008). From Foreign Language Education to Education for Intercultural Citizenship. Essays and Reflections. Oxford, England: Multilingual Matters. Deardorff, D. (Ed.). (2009). The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York, NY: Random House. Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. “National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project” (2006). Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (SFFLL) (3rd ed.). Lawrence, KS: Allen P. Retrieved from http://www.actfl.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3392 Phillips, J. K. & Abbott, M. (2011). A Decade of Foreign Language Standards: Impact, Influence and Future Directions. Retrieved from http://www.actfl.org/files/public/national-standards-2011.pdf • • Smith, S.H. & Bley, M. (2012). “Streets in the Sky: The Balconies of Lima and the Road to Intercultural Competence.“ The Journal of Global Initiatives 7:2 (2012). 143-166. Dresen, A. (2005). Sommer vorm Balkon. Questions and Comments?