Judaism: Faith of our Fathers The Land of the Jews • Palestine: eastern end of Mediterranean Sea – Home of Phoenicians, the Philistines, and the Hebrews • Where did the name ‘Palestine’ come from? • Canaan: Land of the Hebrews – Located within region of Palestine Palestine, c.1200 BC The Search for a Promised Land • Palestine – Crossroads of empire • Assyria and Babylon to East • Egypt to West – Connection to trade routes • Mediterranean Sea • Red Sea – Canaan • Region between Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea • Hebrews believed Canaan was promised to them by God The Torah • Holy Book of Judaism – First 5 books of Old Testament (Written Torah or Tanakh) • Five Books of Moses: –Genesis, –Exodus –Leviticus –Numbers –Deuteronomy Abraham, Father of 3 Faiths • Story of Abraham – Chosen by God as father of Hebrews – Shepherd in city of Ur • Citizen of what civilization and region? – Commanded by God to move tribe to Canaan Genesis 12:1-2 • ‘Go from your country and your kindred and your father’s house to the land that I will show you. I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great.’ • Why would Abraham obey this command? Loyalty to God! • Abraham Prepares to Sacrifice Issac Leaving Ur • 1800 BC – Abraham moves family and followers to Canaan after much wandering through Mesopotamia • 1650 BC – Hebrews relocate to Egypt for a short time, then back to Canaan Abraham’s Travels The God of Abraham • The first monotheistic faith – God known as Yahweh in Hebrew Scripture • In Hebrew: (yod) ( הheh) ( וvav) ( הheh) or ( יהוהYHWH)-ee-ah-oo-eh • The true name of God is never to be spelled out or spoken aloud! – G-D, Adonai ("my Lord"), or Hashem (the Name) – WHY? • 3rd Commandment! – Not a physical being; forbidden to create an image of Him! • 2nd Commandment! The Covenant • Yahweh has power over all peoples everywhere • Yahweh promises to protect Hebrew people because Abraham promised to worship Him Drought in Canaan • 1650 BC – Famine and drought plagues Canaan • How might Hebrews respond? – Migrate to Egypt • Eventually enslaved The Exodus • 1300-1200 BC – The Exodus • Flight of the Jews from Egypt • Led by Moses • The New Covenant – Moses receives Ten Commandments from Yahweh on Mt. Sinai • Forms basis of civil, religious law in Judaism • Hebrews honor commandments, Yahweh protects Hebrews Ten Commandments 1."I am the Lord your G-d, Who has taken you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery“ 2."You shall have no other gods but me" 3. "You shall not take the name of your Lord in vain“ 4. “You shall remember and keep the Sabbath day holy" Ten Commandments 5. "Honor your father and mother" 6. "You shall not murder" 7. "You shall not commit adultery" 8. "You shall not steal" 9. "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor" 10. "You shall not covet your neighbor's goods. You shall not covet your neighbour's house. You shall not covet your neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his bull, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbour's." On the Ten Commandments • Jewish Interpretation – First 4 Commandments deal with God and Man – Second 6 deal with relations between people • Catholic and Protestant versions differ from each other and from Jewish version! • Accepted in Islam, but believed incomplete The God of the Hebrews • Is also the God of the Christians and Muslims! – Known as the Abrahamic Faiths! Wandering the Desert • Moses leads the Jews through Sinai Desert for 40 years – Eventually return to Canaan and establish twelve tribes of Israel • Self-governing; united in times of need • The Prophets – Large number of prophets in Hebrew history • Functioned as religious teachers • Taught about Ten Commandments Some Prophets • Moshe Rabeinu – Most important in Hebrew history! – Who is he? • Female Prophets – Sarah, Miriam, Deborah, Esther • • • • • Samuel Jonah Isaiah John the Baptist Daniel Teachings of the Prophets • Centered around ethical monotheism – Right conduct and worship of one God – “He has told you, oh mortal what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?” »Micah, 6:8 The Kingdom of Israel • 11 of 12 tribes weaken in Canaan – Leaves one large tribe • Tribe of Judah • Hebrews come to be known as Jews, religion Judaism The Symbol of the Tribe of Judah Building the Kingdom • 1020-922 BC • Hebrews unite under three kings – Saul, David, Solomon Saul David: Whose head? Solomon Saul and David • Saul – Chosen for military ability • David – Son-in-law of Saul – Unites tribes, establishes Jerusalem as capital David captures Jerusalem Solomon the Wise • Son of David and Bathsheba – Rules 962 to 922 BC – Greatest King of Hebrew History • Built trade empire • Beautified Jerusalem • Built Temple to house Ark of the Covenant – What was in the Ark? • Built beautiful palace • Considered wisest man in history The Temple of Solomon • • • • Bronze Pillars Gold covered cedar walls Hall decorated with brass and gold Destroyed by Babylon in 586 BC Israel Collapses • Revolution! – Building projects of Solomon led to forced labor, high taxes – Jews in Northern Israel revolt after death of Solomon (922 BC) • North becomes known as Israel • South becomes known as Judah – Kingdoms fight each other, other civilizations for 200 years The Destruction of Palestine • 738 BC – Israel, Judah pay tribute to Assyria as a bribe • 722 BC – Assyria conquers Israel • 586 BC – Judah collapses at hands of Babylon (who had conquered Assyria and beat Egypt) • King Nebuchadnezzar –Destroys Temple of Solomon The Babylonian Captivity • Survivors of Judah exiled to Babylon – Forced to live as slaves – Maintain religion despite problems! • 539 BC – Persians conquer Babylon • King Cyrus of Persia – Jews allowed to return to Jerusalem • 40,000 return; many stay in Babylon! – WHY STAY? Returning to Jerusalem • 515 BC – Second Temple completed – Destroyed by Romans in 70 BC • 445 BC – Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt The Wailing Wall The Crossroads of Empire • Israel and Jerusalem never regain lost glory – Persians, Greeks, Romans all control land of Palestine at various points The Diaspora • Jews have maintained culture and traditions for over 3,000 years – Diaspora=migration of Jews by force or desire throughout world • What does this tell us about Jewish culture and religion?