Sub Search P.S. How The Braves Make Their Mark Sub Search P.S. • 3 Parts • Part 1 – SUB • SKIM, UNDERLINE, BRACKET • Part 2 – SEARCH • SYMBOLS, ENUMERATION, ABBREVIATIONS, REACH & CONNECT, HIGHLIGHT • Part 3 – P.S. • PARAPHRASE and SUMMARIZE Part 1 S.U.B S.U.B. • S - Skim = Speed Read a text for main ideas ! • U - Underline = Underline as you “first-draft” read • B - [Brackets] = Bracket that one major idea / thesis The SUB phase of SubSearch (PS) is the quick “first draft” reading that focuses on finding the main idea or the BIG PICTURE of a text selection. S.U.B The Text: • As we Skim • Underline • [Bracket] a text We are forcing ourselves to concentrate and seek out the very few “MAIN IDEAS” in the passage. SUB-ing a text is a fast strategy that leads the reader into discovery of the main concepts ! Practice • Skim – The article – Just Looking • Underline – Underline the main ideas • Bracket – The ONE major main idea In the March 14 issue of Science magazine, chemists from Brigham Young University and The Scripps Research Institute detail aaprocess [detail processthat thatcould couldreduce reducedependence dependenceon onpetroleum. petroleum.] The most unexpected breakthrough in the paper was that ordinary "main group" metals like thallium and lead can trigger the conversion of natural gas to liquid alcohol. The research teams saw in experiments that natural gas to alcohol conversion occurs at 180 degrees Celsius -- just a fraction of the heat needed with traditional "transition metal" catalysts (1400-1600 degrees Celsius). The BYU team was crucial in using theory to understand how and why this process works at low temperatures and under mild conditions. "This is a highly novel piece of work that opens the way to upgrading of natural gas to useful chemicals with simple materials and moderate conditions," said Robert Crabtree, a chemistry professor at Yale who is familiar with the new study. The discovery comes at a time when natural gas production is booming in America -- a trend that is expected to continue for the next 30 years. The new process actually cuts out one step of the process for fuel production. Ordinarily the three main parts of raw natural gas -- methane, ethane and propane -- are separated before they are turned into fuels or other useful chemicals. "Hardly anybody actually tries to do reactions on a genuine mixture that you would get from natural gas," said Daniel Ess, a BYU chemistry professor and one of the study authors. "Turns out we can just directly use the mixture of what comes out of natural gas and convert all three of them together." The potential benefits aren't limited to the production of fuel, Ess said. Many chemicals derived from natural gas, such as methanol, are also important in manufacturing. "Whether you use methanol to burn as a fuel or as a chemical commodity for products, this process cuts down energy usage," Ess said. PART 2 SEA.RC.H “S” stands for SYMBOLS : There are literally hundreds of SYMBOLS that can use in the margins: An idea I agree with I LOVE this idea! Brainstorm – big idea! A “turnaround” idea - going a different direction or I disagree – that’s an incorrect thought! “E” stands for ENUMERATION: LISTS of facts, details, names and dates are some of the best “clues” an author gives his reader: Number those Three Major Reasons The North won the Civil war for three main reasons: 1 better supplies, 2more economic power, and 3higher population in the Northern states. S.E.A. For Deeper Reading “A” stands for Abbreviations: Our students are MASTERS of abbreviation because of their skill at IM (instant messaging) and Text-Messaging. ot = off topic pu = that idea stinks FYI = for your information (an idea worth knowing) eod = end of discussion … the author makes a culminating point tmi = too much information / don’t need to know all this S.E.A. For Deeper Reading “A” stands for Abbreviations: Here are some of the most common IM and Text Message abbreviations – how can students use these to SubSearch ? :o = I’m shocked by this idea! >:-( = : ( = I’m disappointed / disagreeing :-! : ) = I’m happy to see this / agreeing : - /= -I’m annoyed with this author = I’m very bored with this text ! I’m frustrated with this text ! The R/C is the most important! • When our students React and Connect to the text, they write personal notes and emotional reactions in the margins. • The R/C phase is the most important, because it shows that the reader is truly interacting with the text. Personal comments are most memorable! • R/C is one of the ALWAYS-REQUIRED stages of SubSearch (PS). Others are optional – but we ALWAYS REACT and we ALWAYS CONNECT. What does react-connect look like? http://www.flickr.com/photos/cat-sidh/385649535/ H is for HIGHLIGHT Highlighting is like GOLD Highlighting has value when it is RARE. Too much highlighting = little learning! After we have S.U.B.-ed and S.E.A.R.C.-ed, THEN we can pick up a highlighter – and we give students a target number of highlighted sentences / phrases per passage. HIGHLIGHTING is an “after” reading strategy – so is the P.S. (paraphrase / summarize) When students can paraphrase (put information into their own words) and summarize (condense large amounts of text into smaller “bites” of information) … They are TRULY reading and comprehending! Why Paraphrase / Summarize? • According to the research of Marzano, paraphrasing and summarizing information may be the most significant strategy and skill that readers develop in school. • After finishing a full SUB-SEARCH of an article or passage, students should look back at their markings – and write their own P.S. statement at the end !