(Chapter 7) Listening and Note taking

Report
Chapter 7
Listening, Note Taking & Memory
How can you become a better
listener?
• Listening
– “A process that involves sensing, interpreting,
evaluating and reacting to spoken messages.”
Know the stages of listening
• Sensation
– Listener hears message when ears pick up sound
waves
• Interpretation
– Listener attaches meaning to message
• Evaluation
– Listener judges message against personal values
• Reaction
– Listener provides feedback to speaker through
questions and comments
listening challenges
• Divided attention and distractions
– Internal distractions
– External distractions
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Shutting out the message
The rush to judgment
Partial hearing
Learning disabilities
Become an active listener
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Set purposes for listening
Ask questions
Pay attention to verbal signpost
Expect the unexpected
Set purpose for listening
Ask questions
• “The most important types of question you
will ask are …
– CLARIFYING QUESTIONS”
• Don’t let your questions distract you from
learning
• Cultural differences?
Verbal Signposts
• Verbal Signposts
– Spoken words or phrases that call attention to the
information that follows.
Verbal signposts - examples
• Signals pointing to key concepts
– “There are two reasons for this…”
– “A critical point in the process involves…”
– “Most important…”
Key Concepts
– “The result is…”
Verbal signposts - examples
• Signals pointing to differences
– “On the contrary…”
– “On the other hand…”
– “In contrast…”
– “However…”
Differences
Verbal signposts - examples
• Signal of support
– “For example…”
– “Specifically…”
– “For instance…”
– “Similarly…”
Support
Verbal signposts - examples
• Signals that summarize
– “Finally…”
– “Recapping this idea…”
– “In conclusion…”
– “As a result…”
Summarize
Expect the unexpected
Note taking – WHY?????
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Helps you remember
It helps you to concentrate
It helps you prepare for tests.
Clues for what the instructor thinks most
important (i.e., what will show up on the next
test).
• Your notes often contain information that
cannot be found elsewhere (i.e., in your
textbook).
How can you make the most of note
taking?
• 3 step process
1. Prepare
2. Record
3. Review / revise
Preparing to take class notes
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Preview your reading material
Gather your supplies
Location, location, location
Choose the best note-taking system
– The instructors style
– The course material
– Your learning style
Record information effectively
• Practical advice
– Date & number every page
– Record what the instructor
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Repeats or Emphasizes
Questions asked
Writes on the board
Signals with verbal signposts
Indicates as key terms
– Leave “white space”
– Draw pictures
– Quick but clear
Record information effectively
• Questions marks & spaces
• Use …
– symbols
– highlighters
– different color pens
– CAPITAL LETTERS
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Concentrate
Be Consistent
Be selectively
Use your own words.
Be brief
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Review & Revise your notes
• Plan a review schedule
– Review within a day of the lecture
– Review regularly
– Review with an eye toward tests
• Revise using other sources & critical thinking
• Summarize
• Work with Study Group
Note Taking systems
• Outline form
– Formal outline
– Informal outline
• Cornell Note taking
system
– (T-system)
– 3 areas
• Note taking area
• Cue column
• Summaries
Create a think link
• AKA:
– Mind map or word web
• Visualization
– The interpretation of verbal ideas though the use
of visual images
Use other visual note-taking strategies
• Timelines
Use other visual note-taking strategies
• Tables
Use other visual note-taking strategies
• Hierarchy charts
How can you write faster when taking
notes?
• Shorthand
– A system of rapid handwriting that employs
symbols, abbreviations and shortened words to
represent words and phrases
How can you write faster when taking
notes?
• Standard abbreviations
– w/
• with
–<
• Less than
–#
• number
– eg
• For example
How can you write faster when taking
notes?
• Shorten words by removing vowels
– Prps
• Purpose
– Lwyr
• Lawyer
– Cmptr
• Computer
How can you write faster when taking
notes?
• Substitute word beginning for the entire word
– Assoc
• Associate
– Info
• Information
– Subj
• subject
How can you write faster when taking
notes?
• Make up your own symbols
– b/4
• Before
– 2thake
• Toothache
– TEXT
How can you write faster when taking
notes?
• If you are repeating a work / phrase
throughout the lecture – make an
abbreviation for it.
– Pneumonia (PN)
– Florence Nightingale (FN)
How does memory work
• 3 stages of memory
– Sensory memory
• seconds
– Short-term memory
• 10-20 seconds
– Long-term memory
Four stages of Long term memory
• Concrete experiences
– Hearing or seeing the material, or responses to
your new ideas
• Reflective observation:
– Relating material to previous knowledge
• Abstract hypothesis
– Using material to generate new ideas
• Active testing
– Trying out and communication new ideas.
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Have a purpose and intention
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Understand what you memorize
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Recite, rehearse & write
– Recite =
• Repeat key concepts aloud
– Rehearsing
• Repeating key concepts silently (in your mind)
– Write
• Reciting on paper
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Study during short, frequent sessions
– Which is better?
A. Studying for 60 minutes straight
B. Studying 3 times for 20 minutes each
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Limit and organize material
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Practice the middle
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Create groupings
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Use flash cards
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Use a tape recorder
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Use mnemonic devices
• Mnemonic devices
– Memory techniques that involve associating new
information with information you already know.
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Create visual images and associations
Creating visual images & assoc.
• Draw the Cornell notes system
Creating a visual image
• 3 stages of memory
– Sensory
– Short-term
– Long-term
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Use the mental walk strategy to remember
items in a list
Mental Walk
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Bedroom 
Hallway 
kids room 
bathroom
• Four stages of Longterm memory
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Create acronyms
Acronyms
• stages of listening
– Sensation
– Interpretation
– Evaluation
– Reaction
What memory strategies can improve
recall?
• Use songs or rhymes
Strategies for Group Success
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Choose a leader for each meeting
Set Long-term and short term goals
ID specific ways to work together
Share the work
Set a regular meeting schedule
Create study material for each other

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