Introduction-Organization Development
 Organization Development is a systematic process for
applying behavioral science principles and practices in
organization to increase individual and organizational
 OD is about how people and organizations function and
how to get them to function better.
 The field is based on knowledge from behavioral science
disciplines such as psychology, sociology, systems theory,
organization behavior and management.
 OD practitioners are consultants trained in the theory and
practice of OD with knowledge from the behavioral
 OD Programs are long term planned, sustained efforts.
 The two major goals of OD programs are-
a) To improve the functioning of individuals, teams and
the total organization, and
b) To teach organizations members how to continuously
improve their own functioning.
 O D deals with the gamut of “people problems” and work
system problems” in organizations; poor morale, low
productivity, poor quality, interpersonal conflict,
intergroup conflict, unclear or inappropriate goals,
inappropriate leadership styles, poor team performance,
poorly designed tasks, poor customer relations, culture and
processes and the like.
 Planned Change-
Change means the new state of things and is different from the
old state of things.
Change has different facets; for e.g.it can be deliberate(planned)
or accidental( unplanned). Its magnitude can be large or small. It
can be fast , or slow.
The new state of things can have entirely different nature from
the old state of things.
 OD as a Distinctive Consulting methodThe fundamental difference between OD and other
organization improvement programs is found in the OD
consultant’s role and relationship to clients.
OD Consultants establish a collaborative relationship of relative
equality with organization members as they together identify
and take action on problems and opportunities.
 OD as a Distinctive Consulting method-
The role of OD consultants is to structure activities to
help organization members learn to solve their own
problems and learn to do it better over time.
The aim of leaving the organization members better
able to solve their own problems is a distinctive
feature of OD. This process is called “self renewal” or
learning how to learn” or “organization learning” .
Definition of OD
 According to Beckard, 1969
OD is an effort(1) planned,(2) organization-wide, and
(3)managed from the top, to (4) increase organization
effectiveness and health through (5) planned
interventions in the organization’s “processes” using
behavioral –science knowledge.
 According to Burke, 1994
OD is a planned process of change in an organization’s
culture through the utilization of behavior science
technologies, research and theory.
Definition of OD
 According to Porras & Robertson, 1992
OD is a set of behavioral science-based theories, values,
strategies and techniques aimed at the planned change of
the organizational work setting for the purpose of
enhancing individual development and improving
organizational performance, through the alteration of
organizational members on the job behaviors.
 According to Cummings And Worley, 1993
OD is a systematic application of behavior science
knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement
of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for
improving an organization’s effectiveness.
Characteristics of OD
OD focuses on culture and processes.
It is a system-wise process
It is based on behavioral science knowledge
It is concerned with strategies, structures, processes, people and
It is about organizational effectiveness
OD takes a development view that seeks the betterment of both
individuals and the organization. Attempting to create “win win”
solutions is standard practice in OD programs.
Specifically, OD encourages collaboration between organization
leaders and members in managing culture and processes.
Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks
and are targets for OD activities.
OD practitioners are facilitators, collaborators and co-learners with the
client system.
Objectives of OD program
Individual and group development.
Development of organization culture and processes by
constant interaction between members irrespective of levels of
Inculcating team spirit.
Empowerment of social side of employees.
Focus of value development.
6) Employee participation, problem-solving and decision-making
at various levels.
Evaluate present systems and introduction of new systems
thereby achieving total system change if required.
Objectives of OD program
6) Transformation and achievement of competitive
edge of the organization.
7) Achieve organization growth by total human inputs
by way of research and development, innovations,
creativity and exploiting human talent.
8) Behaviour modification and self managed team as
the basic unit of an organization.
1. For Individuals
Most individuals believe in their personal growth. Even
today, training and development, promotion to the next
higher position dominates the organization philosophy.
b) Majority of the people are desirous of making greater
contributions to the organizations they are serving.
Achievements of organizational goals are however, subject
to limitations or environmental constraints. It is for the
organizations to tap the skills that are available in
This leads to adopt the following organization strategy for development:
Ask questions to resolve doubts.
Listen to superior’s advice.
Support employees in their venture.
Accept challenge.
Leaders to encourage creativity and promote risk taking.
Give additional responsibility to subordinates.
Set high standards of quality.
Empower employees.
Initiate suitable reward system that should be compatible, if not more than
the industry norms.
2. For Groups
a) One of the most important factors in the organization is the
‘work group’ around whom the organization functions. This
includes the peer group and the leader (boss)
b) More people prefer to be part of the group because the group
accepts them.
c) Most people are capable of making higher contributions to
the group’s effectiveness.
Following strategy is required to be adopted for group development
based on the above assumptions:
Invest in training and development of the group. Money and time spent
on this is an investment for the organization. Leaders should also invest
in development of skills and thus help create a position organizational
Let the team flourish. Teams are the best approach to get the work
done. Apart from the above teams enjoy emotional and job satisfaction
when they work in groups.
Leaders should adopt team leadership style and not autocratic
leadership style. To do this, jobs should be allotted to the team and not
to the individual.
It is not possible for one individual (leader) to perform both, the
leadership and maintenance functions. It is therefore necessary for
team members to assist leader in performance of his duties.
Group should be trained in conflict management, stress
management, group decision-making, collaboration, and effective
interpersonal communication. This will improve organizational
effectiveness. Empowerment is the corner stone of the successful
Leaders should pay particular attention to the feelings of the
employees. It should be understood that suppressed feeling and
attitudes adversely affect problem-solving, personal growth and job
Development of group cohesiveness.
3. For Organizations
a) Create learning organization culture.
b) Adopt win-win strategy for sustained growth.
c) Create cooperative dynamics rather than competitive
organizational dynamics in the organization.
d) Needs and aspirations of the employees in the organization must
be met. This leads to greater participation of the employees.
Organizations should adopt developmental outlook and seek
opportunities in which people can experience personal and
professional growth. Such orientation creates a self-fulfilling
3. For Organizations
People must be treated with due respect and
considered important. The credit of success must be
given to the employees unconditioned.
g) Promote organizational citizenship.
History of OD
Systematic OD activities have at least four important
trunk stemsa. The laboratory Training Stem
b. The Survey Research & Feedback Stem
c. The Action Research Stem
d. The Sociotechnical and Socioclinical Stem
The Laboratory Training Stem
The T-Group
• Laboratory training , essentially unstructured small group
situations in which participants plants learn from their
own actions and the group’s evolving dynamics, began to
develop about 1946 from various experiments in using
discussion groups to achieve change in behavior .
• Inter- Group Relations workshop held at the State
Teachers College in New Britain, Connecticut, in the
summer of 1946 influenced the emergence of Laboratory
• This Workshop was sponsored by the Connecticut
Interracial Commission and the Research Centre for Group
Dynamics, then at MIT.
The Laboratory Training Stem
The T-Group
• The research Centre for Group Dynamics (RCGD) was
founded in 1945 under the direction of Kurt Lewin, a
theorists, researcher in interpersonal group,
intergroup and community relationships. Lewin had
been recruited to MIT
• Through a series of events at the New Britain
Workshop of 1946, what was later to be called the “TGroup”( T for Training) began to emerge. The
workshop consist of Kurt Lewin, Kenneth Benne,
Leland Bradford, and Ronald Lippit.
The Laboratory Training Stem
The T-Group
A T- group is an essentially unstructured agenda less
group session for about 10-12 members and a
professional trainer
who act as catalyst and
facilitator for the group.
The data for discussion are the data provided by the
interaction of the group members.
Actions, reactions, interactions and feeling
accompanying them are the data for the group.
The group typically meets for three days up to 2
The Laboratory Training Stem
The T-Group
Learnings derived from the T-group vary for different
individuals, but they are usually described as learnings to
be more competent in interpersonal relationships,
learning more about oneself as a person, learning how
others react to one’s behaviour , and learning about the
dynamics of group formation, and group norms, and
group growth.
The T-group is a powerful learning laboratory where
individuals gain insights into the meaning and
consequences of their own behavior, the meaning and
consequences of others behaviors, and the dynamics and
processes of group behavior.
The Laboratory Training Stem
The T-Group
Uses of T-group relative to OD are varied but they are
particularly appropriate for enhancing basic skills relevant to
The most frequently used T-group format is the “Stranger” lab
composed of people from a variety of organizations.
To illustrate, a one week T-group experience might involve
three trainers and 30 to 36 participants, all strangers to each
other at the beginning of the lab.
Another format involves several clusters of two or three
persons from the same organizations, with people who know
each other Assigned to different T –groups.
The Laboratory Training Stem
Growth of T-group in India
Rolf Lynton conducted the first T-group in India in 1957 for
youth leaders
He established “Aloka” in Mysore in order to develop the
capacity of youth.
He implemented leadership training for 12 weeks including
unstructured group exercise.
In North India, Max Coley, Dean of Teachers, College,
Columbia University, USA stayed in delhi from 1959 to 1966 as
a consultant to the Ministry of Education. He conducted Tgroups in his house and Udai Pareek was one of participants.
Udai Pareek visited USA in 1961 and was trained by NTL. After
his return to India, the first full scale Laboratory Training in
India was implemented in 1962 in Feerozpur by Coley and
The Laboratory Training Stem
Growth of T-group in India
Lynton and Pareek started “;L-groups” in SEIT Institute
from 1964.
• At the same time IIM Calcutta(IIM-C) invited some NTL
Members as visiting professors, and they implemented
Laboratory Training there.
Merits of T-group training
 The trainees learn more about themselves,
specially their weakness and emotions
They understand that how they react to others
and how others react to them
They discover how the groups work and identify
human relation problems
Develop more capable and genuine relations in
which feelings are expressed openly.
Confront interpersonal problems directly to find
out solution instead of avoiding them.
Demerits T-group training
 During the training, the trainer often create stressful
situation. In such situation, the training may do a job
of tearing apart people instead of bringing them
 The changes trainees acquire during the training tend
to face out when trainee returns to insensitive
environment of workplace.
 This training may make the management trainee as
sensitive towards others that they become unwilling to
take necessary hard decisions.
 Such training may make people frustrated and upset
as many stressful situations are created during this
Some basics to implement the T group training
 T-group training is more suitable for developing
organisation. If such openness and flexible
organizational structure is not available, this
training is not appropriate.
The participants should be selected on the basis of
their emotional stability and anxiety tolerance
The participation should be strictly voluntary
The trainees should know in advance that what
sort of training they are going to receive
The transfer of learning back to the organization
should be ensured.
The Survey Research and Feedback Stem
• Survey Research and feedback constitutes the second major
stem in the history of OD.
The history of this stem revolves around the techniques and
approach developed over a period of years by staff members at
the Survey Research Centre(SRC) of the University of Michigan.
The SRC was founded in 1946 by Rensis Likert, director of the
division of Program Surveys of the Federal Bureau of
Agricultural Economics.
After completing his Ph.d he worked for the Life Insurance
Agency Management Association. There he conducted research
on leadership, motivation, morale and productivity.
Survey research and feedback was based on refinements made
by SRC staff members: The problem of how company could best
use the data from the survey to bring improvement in
management and performance.
The Action Research Stem
• There are four versions of Action research-
One of which participant action research
2. Laboratory training Action research
3. Survey feedback Action research
4. Tavistock projects
The Sociotechnical and Socioclinical Stem
• The 4th stem in the history of OD is the evolution of
Sociotechnical and socioclinical approaches to helping
group and organizations.
• In later half of 1960’s individuals from India visited U.S and
studied in NTL, some were supported by IIM Calcutta and
some were self-sponsored, etc.
• They started offering laboratory training to industrial
companies and released soon that facilitators like NTL
would be needed in India too.
• In 1971 , by Francis Menezes proposal, a two day conference
for establishing an association of T-group facilitators was
held in Pune. As a result , the Indian Society for Applied
Behavioural Science (ISABS) was established in 1972.
Second-Generation OD
• Practitioners and researchers have considerable attention
to the emerging concepts , interventions, and areas of
application that might called as second generation of OD.
Second Generation OD has a focusInterest in organizational transformation
Interest in the learning Organization
Intensified Interest in Teams
Interest in Total Quality Management
Interest in Visioning and future Search
Rediscovering large Meetings and Getting the “Whole
System” in the Room.
Values, Beliefs and Assumptions in OD
• Belief: A belief is a proposition about how the world works
that the individual accepts as true; it is a cognitive fact for
the person.
• Values: Values are also beliefs and are defined as “ beliefs
about what is desirable or a ‘good’ and what is undesirable
or a ‘bad’.
• Assumptions: Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded
as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for
granted and rarely examined or questioned.
• Thus, values, assumptions, and beliefs are all cognitive
facts or propositions, with values being beliefs about good
and bad, and assumptions being strongly held, relatively
unexamined belief accepted as the truth.
Values, Beliefs and Assumptions in OD
• OD values tend to be Humanistic, optimistic and democratic• Humanistic Values proclaim the importance of the individual ;
respect and dignity, assume that everyone has intrinsic worth,
view all people as having the potential for growth and
• Optimistic Values states that people are basically good, that
progress is possible and desirable in human affairs, and that
rationality, reason , and goodwill are the tools for making
• Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual, the
right of people to be free from illlogical misuse of power, the
importance of fair and equitable treatment for all.
Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions
• In 1969, Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners
share a set of goals based on their humanistic/democratic
philosophy. He listed the goals as followsImprovement in interpersonal competence
Development of more effective” team management” that
is, the capacity for functional groups to work more
Development of better methods of Conflict resolution.
Development of organic rather than mechanical systems.
Mechanical system encourage “ centralized decision
making” while organic system encourage “ wide sharing of
responsibility and control.
Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions
• Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. In his
1969 book he described “ several assumptions about the nature
and functioning of organizations, held by OD practitioners. The
list is as follows1. The basic building blocks of an organization are
groups(teams). Therefore, the basic units of change are groups,
not individuals.
2. Decision making in a healthy organization is located where the
information sources are rather than in a particular role or level
of hierarchy.
3. Organizations, subunits of organizations, and individuals
continuously manage their affairs against goals. Controls are
interim measurements, not the basis of managerial strategy.
Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions
4. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally
open communication, mutual trust, and confidence
between and across levels.
5. “People support what they help create.” People affected by
a change must be allowed active participation and a sense
of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change.
Implications of OD Values & Assumptions
The implications of OD assumptions and values for
dealing with individuals, groups and organizationsI. Implications for dealing with individuals- Two basic
assumptions about individuals
a. Most individuals have drive towards personal growth
and development if provided an environment that is both
supportive and challenging.
b. Most people are desire to make , and are capable of
making , a greater contribution to attaining organization
goals than most organization environment permit.
Implications of OD Values & Assumptions
II. Implications for dealing with Groups- There are several
assumptions relate to the importance of the work teamsa. What occurs in the work group at both the formal and informal
levels, greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence.
b. People wish to be accepted and to interact cooperatively with at
least one small reference group, usually with more than one group,
such as a work group, the family, a church or club group.
c. Most people are capable of making greater contributions to a
group’s effectiveness and development.
d. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all
the leadership and maintenance function required for a group to
optimize its effectiveness, group member should assist the leader
with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness skills such as
problem solving and decision making, conflict mgmt & interpersonal
Implications of OD Values & Assumptions
III. Implications for dealing with Organizationa. A key assumption in organization development is that
the needs and aspirations of human beings are the
reasons for organized effort in society.
b. It is possible to create organizations that on the one
hand are human development and empowering, and the
other hand are high performing in terms of productivity,
quality of output and profitability.
c. The implication is that people are an organization’s
most important resource; they are the source of
productivity and profits and should be treated with care.

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