EOCT Practice Part 2 - Fulton County Schools

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Biology EOCT Review
PART II
Milton High School
1
1. At a crime scene, detectives collected strands of hair and dusted
surfaces to gather fingerprints. Forensic scientists compared the
fingerprints using the computer database and analyzed the DNA in
the hair. What characteristics of fingerprints and DNA help police
solve the crime?
A. Fingerprints and DNA can show the sex of the individual.
B. Both DNA and fingerprints are unique to an individual.
C. The state of fingerprints and DNA can show what time the crime
occurred.
D. Fingerprints and DNA tell whether the person is young or old.
2
1. At a crime scene, detectives collected strands of hair and dusted
surfaces to gather fingerprints. Forensic scientists compared the
fingerprints using the computer database and analyzed the DNA in
the hair. What characteristics of fingerprints and DNA help police
solve the crime?
A. Fingerprints and DNA can show the sex of the individual.
B. Both DNA and fingerprints are unique to an individual.
C. The state of fingerprints and DNA can show what time the crime
occurred.
D. Fingerprints and DNA tell whether the person is young or old.
3
2. Without enzymes, the chemical reactions in living things
A. Would happen at the same rate as they do with enzymes
B. Would happen too rapidly to support cellular processes
C. Would happen, only with different reactants
D. Would happen too slowly to support cellular processes
4
2. Without enzymes, the chemical reactions in living things
A. Would happen at the same rate as they do with enzymes
B. Would happen too rapidly to support cellular processes
C. Would happen, only with different reactants
D. Would happen too slowly to support cellular processes
5
3. Which of the following is not a function of
carbohydrates in cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Energy sources
Catalysts
Structural materials
Cellular identification
6
3. Which of the following is not a function of
carbohydrates in cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Energy sources
Catalysts
Structural materials
Cellular identification
7
4. The function of nucleic acids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
Assisting in chemical reactions in cells
Storing and transmitting cellular information
Storing energy for cells
Providing structure to the nucleus of cells
8
4. The function of nucleic acids is
A.
B.
C.
D.
Assisting in chemical reactions in cells
Storing and transmitting cellular information
Storing energy for cells
Providing structure to the nucleus of cells
9
5. Which of the following helps plant cells remain
rigid?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Cell membrane
Nucleus
Chloroplast
Central vacuole
10
5. Which of the following helps plant cells remain
rigid?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Cell membrane
Nucleus
Chloroplast
Central vacuole
11
6. In what level is there the least energy available?
A. Producers
B. Primary consumer
C. Secondary consumer
D. Tertiary consumer
12
6. In what level is there the least energy available?
A. Producers
B. Primary consumer
C. Secondary consumer
D. Tertiary consumer
13
7. Which vital substance is produced
by the mitochondrion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Protein
DNA
ATP
Water
14
7. Which vital substance is produced
by the mitochondrion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Protein
DNA
ATP
Water
15
8. What type of cell is shown in the diagram?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Eukaryotic cell
Prokaryotic cell
Viral cell
Plant cell
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8. What type of cell is shown in the diagram?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Eukaryotic cell
Prokaryotic cell
Viral cell
Plant cell
17
9. Which of the following is not a property of all living cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Are composed of chemical elements
Are the basic unit of function of living things
Come from other cells
Are indistinguishable from viruses
18
9. Which of the following is not a property of all living cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Are composed of chemical elements
Are the basic unit of function of living things
Come from other cells
Are indistinguishable from viruses
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10. What is the main difference between cells in unicellular
organisms and cells in in multi-cellular organisms?
A. Cells in multi-cellular organisms are specialized to perform only
certain tasks.
B. Cells in unicellular organisms are organized into tissues and
organs.
C. Cells in unicellular organisms divide at a faster rate than cells in
multi-cellular organisms.
D. Cells in multi-cellular organisms contain only half of the genetic
material as cells in unicellular organisms.
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10. What is the main difference between cells in unicellular
organisms and cells in in multi-cellular organisms?
A. Cells in multi-cellular organisms are specialized to perform only
certain tasks.
B. Cells in unicellular organisms are organized into tissues and
organs.
C. Cells in unicellular organisms divide at a faster rate than cells in
multi-cellular organisms.
D. Cells in multi-cellular organisms contain only half of the genetic
material as cells in unicellular organisms.
21
11. Which of the following does not describe a function of the
cell membrane?
A. Cell membranes maintain homeostasis by controlling the
movement of substances into and out of the cell.
B. The cell membrane contains many different proteins that
enable a cell to detect and respond to its surroundings.
C. The cell membrane participates in both active and passive
transport.
D. The cell membrane aids in both mitosis and meiosis.
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11. Which of the following does not describe a function of the
cell membrane?
A. Cell membranes maintain homeostasis by controlling the
movement of substances into and out of the cell.
B. The cell membrane contains many different proteins that
enable a cell to detect and respond to its surroundings.
C. The cell membrane participates in both active and passive
transport.
D. The cell membrane aids in both mitosis and meiosis.
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12. What cell structure identifies a cell as eukaryotic?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Cell membrane
DNA
Nucleus
Ribosome
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12. What cell structure identifies a cell as eukaryotic?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Cell membrane
DNA
Nucleus
Ribosome
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Speckled (Bb)
Dark Brown (BB)
Light Brown (bb)
13. The population of crabs living on a sandy beach exhibits three colors: dark brown, light
brown, and speckled. The genotypes of these colors are BB for dark brown, bb for light
brown, and Bb for speckled. The speckled color blends in extremely well with the color of
the sand on the beach. The pattern appears to provide the speckled crabs with some
protection from predatory birds. Based on your knowledge of natural selection and the
information above, which of the following conclusions can be drawn?
A. Only the speckled crabs will survive and all of the offspring will be speckled.
B. The allele for light brown color will be lost because of predatory birds eating light
brown crabs.
C. The allele for dark brown color will be lost because of predatory birds eating dark
brown crabs.
D. Both allele for dark brown and the allele for light brown will continue to be passed on
in the crab population.
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Speckled (Bb)
Dark Brown (BB)
Light Brown (bb)
13. The population of crabs living on a sandy beach exhibits three colors: dark brown, light
brown, and speckled. The genotypes of these colors are BB for dark brown, bb for light
brown, and Bb for speckled. The speckled color blends in extremely well with the color of
the sand on the beach. The pattern appears to provide the speckled crabs with some
protection from predatory birds. Based on your knowledge of natural selection and the
information above, which of the following conclusions can be drawn?
A. Only the speckled crabs will survive and all of the offspring will be speckled.
B. The allele for light brown color will be lost because of predatory birds eating light
brown crabs.
C. The allele for dark brown color will be lost because of predatory birds eating dark
brown crabs.
D. Both allele for dark brown and the allele for light brown will continue to be passed on
in the crab population.
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1
2
3
4
14. Meiosis allows for genetic variation of offspring because parental alleles
can be combined in different ways. A Punnett square shows how parental
alleles can combine. The Punnett square below shows a cross between two
rabbits. Black fur (B) is dominant to brown fur (b). What would be the
phenotype of the offspring indicated by Box 3?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Brown
Mixture of brown and black
Black
The phenotype cannot be determined.
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1
2
3
4
14. Meiosis allows for genetic variation of offspring because parental alleles
can be combined in different ways. A Punnett square shows how parental
alleles can combine. The Punnett square below shows a cross between two
rabbits. Black fur (B) is dominant to brown fur (b). What would be the
phenotype of the offspring indicated by Box 3?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Brown
Mixture of brown and black
Black
The phenotype cannot be determined.
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15. Variation within organisms within a species increases
the chance that a species will survive changing conditions.
What kind of reproduction produces the most variation
within a species?
A. Asexual reproduction
B. Budding
C. Parthenogenesis
D. Sexual reproduction
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15. Variation within organisms within a species increases
the chance that a species will survive changing conditions.
What kind of reproduction produces the most variation
within a species?
A. Asexual reproduction
B. Budding
C. Parthenogenesis
D. Sexual reproduction
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16. Which statement explains why approximately half of an individual’s
DNA sequence comes from each parent?
A. A cell from one parent undergoes meiosis, producing offspring cells
that have both parents’ DNA.
B. A cell from one parent undergoes mitotic cell division, producing
offspring cells that have only half of the parent’s DNA.
C. Cells in the parents undergo meiosis, producing haploid gametes
that meet up during fertilization to produce a diploid individual.
D. Cells that parents undergo mitosis, producing offspring cells that
meet up during fertilization to produce an individual with half of
each parent’s DNA.
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16. Which statement explains why approximately half of an individual’s
DNA sequence comes from each parent?
A. A cell from one parent undergoes meiosis, producing offspring cells
that have both parents’ DNA.
B. A cell from one parent undergoes mitotic cell division, producing
offspring cells that have only half of the parent’s DNA.
C. Cells in the parents undergo meiosis, producing haploid gametes
that meet up during fertilization to produce a diploid individual.
D. Cells that parents undergo mitosis, producing offspring cells that
meet up during fertilization to produce an individual with half of
each parent’s DNA.
33
17. If a speckled crab (Bb) were crossed with another
speckled crab (Bb), what are the chances that their
offspring would have a heterozygous genotype?
A.
B.
C.
D.
0%
50%
75%
100%
34
17. If a speckled crab (Bb) were crossed with another
speckled crab (Bb), what are the chances that their
offspring would have a heterozygous genotype?
A.
B.
C.
D.
0%
50%
75%
100%
35
18. For a certain plant, purple flowers (P) are dominant, and
white flowers (p) are recessive. A homozygous purple plant
is crossed with a homozygous white plant. What are the
possible genotypes of the offspring?
A. pp only
B. PP only
C. Pp only
D. PP, pp, and Pp
36
18. For a certain plant, purple flowers (P) are dominant, and
white flowers (p) are recessive. A homozygous purple plant
is crossed with a homozygous white plant. What are the
possible genotypes of the offspring?
A. pp only
B. PP only
C. Pp only
D. PP, pp, and Pp
37
19. RNA is chemically similar to DNA except that it contains
ribose instead of deoxyribose, and the base thymine is
replaced by
A.
B.
C.
D.
alanine
adenine
uracil
cytosine
38
19. RNA is chemically similar to DNA except that it contains
ribose instead of deoxyribose, and the base thymine is
replaced by
A.
B.
C.
D.
alanine
adenine
uracil
cytosine
39
20. What is the major source of new alleles in natural
populations?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mutations in somatic cells
Mutations in sex cells
Adaptations in individual organisms
Trait selection by natural selection
40
20. What is the major source of new alleles in natural
populations?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mutations in somatic cells
Mutations in sex cells
Adaptations in individual organisms
Trait selection by natural selection
41
21. Carl Linnaeus’s system of classification was based on his
judgment of the importance of various similarities among
living things. Scientists have traditionally used similarities in
appearance and structure to group organisms. However, this
approach has proven problematic. Identify one way that this
approach could be problematic.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Some groups look different and are not related.
Some groups look similar but are not closely related.
Some groups look different but are related.
There is not consistent relationship between structures
and relatedness.
42
21. Carl Linnaeus’s system of classification was based on his
judgment of the importance of various similarities among
living things. Scientists have traditionally used similarities in
appearance and structure to group organisms. However, this
approach has proven problematic. Identify one way that this
approach could be problematic.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Some groups look different and are not related.
Some groups look similar but are not closely related.
Some groups look different but are related.
There is not consistent relationship between structures
and relatedness.
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22. Jackrabbits live in warm environments in the southwestern
United States. They have short hair and long ears that help
them radiate heat. What would most likely happen to the
jackrabbit population if the environment slowly began to cool?
A. The jackrabbit population would migrate farther north.
B. The jackrabbit population would definitely become extinct.
C. The jackrabbit population would evolve to have longer,
wider ears.
D. The jackrabbit population would evolve to have thicker coat
and hair.
44
22. Jackrabbits live in warm environments in the southwestern
United States. They have short hair and long ears that help
them radiate heat. What would most likely happen to the
jackrabbit population if the environment slowly began to cool?
A. The jackrabbit population would migrate farther north.
B. The jackrabbit population would definitely become extinct.
C. The jackrabbit population would evolve to have longer,
wider ears.
D. The jackrabbit population would evolve to have thicker coat
and hair.
45
23. Which of the following statements identifies the characteristics of
fungi?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Fungi are heterotrophic, have cell walls, and have threadlike bodies.
Fungi are autotrophic, have cell walls, and have threadlike bodies.
Fungi are heterotrophic, lack cell walls, and have hollow bodies.
Fungi are heterotrophic, lack cell walls, and have threadlike bodies.
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23. Which of the following statements identifies the characteristics of
fungi?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Fungi are heterotrophic, have cell walls, and have threadlike bodies.
Fungi are autotrophic, have cell walls, and have threadlike bodies.
Fungi are heterotrophic, lack cell walls, and have hollow bodies.
Fungi are heterotrophic, lack cell walls, and have threadlike bodies.
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24.All protists
A.
B.
C.
D.
Are parasites
Move toward the light
Have a true nucleus
Use flagella to move
48
24. All protists
A.
B.
C.
D.
Are parasites
Move toward the light
Have a true nucleus
Use flagella to move
49
25. Which terrestrial biome is characterized by high
precipitation, relatively infertile soil, heavily forested
land, and high levels of biodiversity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Temperate deciduous forest
Taiga
Tropical rain forest
Savanna
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25. Which terrestrial biome is characterized by high
precipitation, relatively infertile soil, heavily forested
land, and high levels of biodiversity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Temperate deciduous forest
Taiga
Tropical rain forest
Savanna
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26. Enzymes are catalysts. What is the role of a catalyst?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Provides extra energy for a reaction
Lowers the activation energy of a reaction
Eliminates the activation energy of a reaction
Only allows irreversible reactions to happen
52
26. Enzymes are catalysts. What is the role of a catalyst?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Provides extra energy for a reaction
Lowers the activation energy of a reaction
Eliminates the activation energy of a reaction
Only allows irreversible reactions to happen
53
27. How are viruses different from living organisms?
A. Viruses have not DNA or RNA
B. Viruses use host cell parts to reproduce
C. Viruses contain no proteins
D. Viruses can be killed by antibiotics
Influenza virus
54
27. How are viruses different from living organisms?
A. Viruses have not DNA or RNA
B. Viruses use host cell parts to reproduce
C. Viruses contain no proteins
D. Viruses can be killed by antibiotics
Influenza virus
55
Water movement into and out of cells
is of prime importance to all living
things. The organism in the figure has
star-shaped organelles called
contractile vacuoles to move water
from inside to outside the cell.
28. How does water move into the organism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Through the cilia
By osmosis
By capillary action
Through the mouth pore
56
Water movement into and out of cells
is of prime importance to all living
things. The organism in the figure has
star-shaped organelles called
contractile vacuoles to move water
from inside to outside the cell.
28. How does water move into the organism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Through the cilia
By osmosis
By capillary action
Through the mouth pore
57
29. Modern classification systems
A. Are based solely on structural characteristics of organisms
B. Are based on evolutionary relationships as well as similar
characteristics
C. Are based on similar behaviors among organisms
D. Are based solely on evolutionary relationships between
organisms
58
29. Modern classification systems
A. Are based solely on structural characteristics of organisms
B. Are based on evolutionary relationships as well as similar
characteristics
C. Are based on similar behaviors among organisms
D. Are based solely on evolutionary relationships between
organisms
59
30. When significant climate change happens on Earth,
which of the following is most likely?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The destruction of Earth’s ecosystems
Changes in Earth’s ecosystems
A halt in the appearance of new species
Overpopulation of bacteria
60
30. When significant climate change happens on Earth,
which of the following is most likely?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The destruction of Earth’s ecosystems
Changes in Earth’s ecosystems
A halt in the appearance of new species
Overpopulation of bacteria
61
31. The role of chloroplasts in plant cells is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
Store water and nutrients
Support and protect the cell
Use light energy to make carbohydrates
Make proteins
62
31. The role of chloroplasts in plant cells is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
Store water and nutrients
Support and protect the cell
Use light energy to make carbohydrates
Make proteins
63
The single-celled organism above uses a whip-like flagellum to move. The
organism has a nucleus and organelles surrounded by a membrane. The
organism also has chloroplasts and a cell wall.
32. To which kingdom does the organism belong?
A. Animalia
B. Eubacteria
C. Plantae
D. Protista
64
The single-celled organism above uses a whip-like flagellum to move. The
organism has a nucleus and organelles surrounded by a membrane. The
organism also has chloroplasts and a cell wall.
32. To which kingdom does the organism belong?
A. Animalia
B. Eubacteria
C. Plantae
D. Protista
65
33. Why does the human body require carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids?
A. The body uses these nutrients to synthesize inorganic compounds.
B. The body uses these vitamins to synthesize and maintain bones and
nerves.
C. The body uses these nutrients to synthesize organic compounds and
maintain life processes.
D. The body uses these inorganic compounds to maintain life processes
and reproduce.
66
33. Why does the human body require carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids?
A. The body uses these nutrients to synthesize inorganic compounds.
B. The body uses these vitamins to synthesize and maintain bones and
nerves.
C. The body uses these nutrients to synthesize organic compounds and
maintain life processes.
D. The body uses these inorganic compounds to maintain life processes
and reproduce.
67
34. What advantage does meiosis give to organisms that reproduce
sexually?
A. Meiosis ensures that offspring inherit genes from their parents.
B. Meiosis ensures that offspring will not inherit any genetic
disorders.
C. Meiosis ensures that offspring are genetically different from
their parents.
D. Meiosis ensures that offspring will have identical phenotypes to
their parents.
68
34. What advantage does meiosis give to organisms that reproduce
sexually?
A. Meiosis ensures that offspring inherit genes from their parents.
B. Meiosis ensures that offspring will not inherit any genetic
disorders.
C. Meiosis ensures that offspring are genetically different from
their parents.
D. Meiosis ensures that offspring will have identical phenotypes to
their parents.
69
35. Lakshay places a bunch of grapes in a bowl of plain water
and a second bunch of grapes in a bowl of salt water. After an
hour, the grapes in the plain water are swollen, whereas the
grapes in the saltwater are shriveled. What cellular process
caused the grapes to shrivel?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Osmosis
Exocytosis
Active transport
Diffusion
70
35. Lakshay places a bunch of grapes in a bowl of plain water
and a second bunch of grapes in a bowl of salt water. After an
hour, the grapes in the plain water are swollen, whereas the
grapes in the saltwater are shriveled. What cellular process
caused the grapes to shrivel?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Osmosis
Exocytosis
Active transport
Diffusion
71
36. Based on your knowledge of succession, which of the
following communities would be the most stable over time?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A field of ferns and grasses
Bare rock and lichen
A maple forest after a fire
A mature pine forest
72
36. Based on your knowledge of succession, which of the
following communities would be the most stable over time?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A field of ferns and grasses
Bare rock and lichen
A maple forest after a fire
A mature pine forest
73
37. Carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesis. Why
is carbon dioxide also considered an air pollutant?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Too much carbon dioxide can lead to cancer in humans.
Carbon dioxide is responsible for changes in the ozone layer.
Carbon dioxide can mix with other gases to form ozone.
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can cause undesirable
changes in climate.
74
37. Carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesis. Why
is carbon dioxide also considered an air pollutant?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Too much carbon dioxide can lead to cancer in humans.
Carbon dioxide is responsible for changes in the ozone layer.
Carbon dioxide can mix with other gases to form ozone.
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can cause undesirable
changes in climate.
75

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