Chapter 7 Notes

Chapter 7
Becoming a World Power
What role should the United States
have in world affairs?
The Imperialists Vision
• Imperialism – the economic and political
domination of a strong nation over weaker ones.
• Why was the U.S. interested in becoming an
imperial power?
– Tariffs and trade
– Raw materials
– New markets
– Colonies and protectorates
– European expansion
The Imperialists Vision, cont…
• Social Darwinism – only strong nations will
• Anglo-Saxonism – English speaking nations had
superior character, ideas, and systems of
• Manifest Destiny – God given destiny to
expand overseas and spread its civilization to
other people.
– Missionary work
Imperialism Assignment
• Read the Primary Source Documents (2
documents) and answer the questions at the
end of each document.
Imperialism Review
* Working alone or in groups of 2 or 3, write a
paragraph either defending American
Imperialism at the turn of the century or
arguing against American Imperialism. Refer
to one or both of the documents, or to
Section 1 of Chapter 7, to explain your
Section 1
The Imperialists Vision, cont…
• Powerful navy needed to protect
merchant ships, trade routes, economic
• 1853 – America develops trade
relationship with Japan. By 1890 Japan
has developed its own powerful navy
and is creating its empire in Asia
Section 1
The Imperialists Vision, cont…
• Hawaii – Sugar – and the Marines
– 1819 - Christian missionaries arrive from New England.
– 1850’s - American settlers discover sugarcane grows well.
– 1887 – Wealth planters pressure King to accept
constitution which limits his power.
– 1890 – Congress passes tariff making Hawaiian sugar
– 1891 – Queen Liliuokalani takes throne, tries to reassert
power of monarchy.
– 1893 – Wealthy planters and U.S. marines force her out.
– 1898 – U.S. annexes Hawaii
Section 2
The Spanish – American War
• Cuba was a valuable colony for Spain and
produced 1/3 of the worlds sugar. Until 1886,
Spain enslaved nearly 1/3 of all Cubans and forced
them to work on plantations.
• 1868 – Cuban rebels declare independence from
Spain but revolution fails.
• U.S. develops strong economic ties with Cuba
• 1895 - Cuba declares its independence from Spain
• U.S. remains neutral.
Section 2
The Spanish – American War, cont…
• America Supports Cuba
– American Revolution
– Yellow Journalism – Newspaper owners William
Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer
– 200,000 Spanish troops arrive
– General Weyler (the butcher)appointed governor
– Rebels destroy American property in Cuba
– Tens of thousands of Cubans die of starvation and
disease while held captive in “reconcentration
Section 2
The Spanish – American War, cont…
Calls for War
• U.S. tries to remain neutral
• Spanish Ambassador calls
President McKinley weak.
• USS Maine sent to Havana Harbor
to evacuate American citizens
• 2/15/1898 – Maine explodes and
is sunk. Cause unknown.
• Congress authorizes money for
• jingoism – extreme nationalism
very high
• Political pressure moves McKinley
to ask Congress to declare war.
The War Begins and Ends
• May 1, 1898 - Commodore
George Dewey destroys Spanish
fleet in Philippines.
• June 14, 1898 – American
troops land near Santiago.
• Teddy Roosevelt and the
“Rough Riders” attack Kettle Hill
and San Juan Hill
• July 3, 1898 – Spanish fleet is
destroyed in Cuba.
• Late July, 1898 – Spanish troops
in Cuba surrender.
Section 2
The Spanish – American War, cont…
• An American Empire
– Cuba gained its independence (limited)
– Guam and Puerto Rico annexed by the U.S.
• Inhabitants eventually gain U.S. citizenship
– After much debate, the Philippines are annexed.
• Philippine rebels who fought against Spain now fought
against U.S.
• U.S. used “reconcentration camps” like Spanish in Cuba.
• Tens of thousands of Filipinos died from combat, disease, or
• 1946 – U.S. finally grants independence to Philippines.
Section 2 Assignment
• Using information from Section 2, write a
paragraph arguing in favor of or against
American intervention in Cuba in 1897.
• Read the arguments on page 273, for and
against the annexation of the Philippines,
and read The Debate Over Annexation on
273 and 274. Use this information to
write a paragraph in favor of or against
annexation of the Philippines.
Section 3
New American Diplomacy
• Asia – The U.S. was a major power with many naval
bases across the Pacific.
• Many European countries were exerting control over
trade with China.
• President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay
created the Open Door policy, whereby all countries
would be allowed to trade with China.
• Some secret Chinese organizations rebelled against the
foreign control and started the Boxer Rebellion.
• After 200 foreigners were killed, 8 countries including
the U.S. sent troops to China and put down the
Section 3
New American Diplomacy, cont…
• President McKinley is assassinated in Buffalo, New
York by an anarchist. Teddy Roosevelt takes over.
• Roosevelt believed in American power and AngloSaxonism.
• Roosevelt was instrumental in ending a war
between Japan and Russia.
• Roosevelt was famous for his saying of “Speak softly
and carry a big stick.”
The Panama Canal
Section 3
New American Diplomacy, cont…
• The Panama Canal
Roosevelt believed it was vital to American power.
A canal would save time and money.
Nicaragua and Panama were considered good options.
Panama became best option.
U.S. offered Columbia $10 million and $250,000 a year to
build through Panama. Columbia refused.
– Some Panamanians used this as an opportunity to get their
independence from Columbia.
– Roosevelt sent 10 warships to the area.
– The U.S. recognized Panama’s independence and a treaty to
build a canal was signed.
The Panama Canal
Section 3
New American Diplomacy, cont…
• The Roosevelt Corollary – The U.S. would
intervene in Latin American affairs when
necessary to maintain economic and political
stability in the Western Hemisphere.
• Dollar Diplomacy – Roosevelt’s successor,
William Howard Taft’s policy of using
American economic power to help Latin
American development.

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