Executive Branch Unit 7

Report

As Commander in Chief and Chief
Diplomat, the president leads the
nation’s armed forces and directs U.S.
foreign policy.

Foreign Policy – A nation’s plan for
dealing with other nations.

4 Goals of Foreign Policy
› Primary Goal: National Security: The ability to
keep the country safe from attack or harm
› 2nd: International trade
› 3rd: Promoting World Peace
› 4th: Promote democracy around the world

Foreign Policy Team
› State Department (Secretary of State)
› Defense Department (Secretary of Defense)
› Central Intelligence Agency (Director of the
CIA)
› National Security Council (National Security
Advisor)
› Joint Chiefs of Staff

Congress v the President
› President:
 Commander on Chief
› Congress:
 Declare War
 Prohibit military action
 Spending – can spend or withhold money for
defense

Tools of Foreign Policy
› Treaties and Executive Agreements
 Treaty: Formal agreements between two or more
countries (needs Senate approval)
 Executive Agreement: Agreement between two or
more heads of state (bypass Senate)
› Appointing Ambassadors
 Ambassador: An official representative of a
country’s government
 Embassy: A permanent diplomatic mission. Refers
to the building or compound housing an
ambassador's offices and staff.

Tools of Foreign Policy (Con’t)
› Foreign Aid
 Money, food, military assistance, other supplies
› International Trade
 Trade sanctions: an effort to punish another
nation by imposing trade barriers
 Embargo – agreement among a group of
nations that prohibits them from trading with
the target nation
› Military Force

Executive Office of the President (EOP)
› Includes:
 White House Office (WHO)
 500+ people
 Top Advisors of the President
 Most powerful: Chief of Staff

Management and Budget (OMB)
› Prepares the federal budget and monitors,
or oversees, spending in hundreds of
government agencies

National Security Council
› Helps the President direct United States
military and foreign policy.
› Includes: President, VP, Sec of State, Sec of
Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National
Security Advisor

Office of Administration
› Provides administrative services to the EOP
› Responds to individuals requesting information
under the Freedom of Information Act

Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
› Helps the President carry out his role as
Economic Leader
› Gives the President advice on complex
economic matters such as employment,
inflation, and foreign trade
› President appoints the advisers with Senate
consent.

The Cabinet
› Group of presidential advisers, that includes
the heads of the 15 top-level executive
departments
› The heads of these departments are all
called Secretaries with the exception of the
head of the Department of Justice , which is
referred to as the Attorney General

The Cabinet
1. Department of State (1789): Plans and carries
2.
3.
4.
5.
out the nation’s foreign policy.
Department of the Treasury (1789): Collects,
borrows, spends, and prints money
Department of Defense (1789): Manages the
armed forces
Department of Justice (1870): Responsible for all
aspects of law enforcement
Department of the Interior (1879): Manages
and protects nation’s public lands and natural
resources
6. Department of Agriculture (1889): Assists
farmers and consumers of farm products
7.Department of Commerce (1903): Supervises
trade, promotes U.S. business, tourism
8. Department of Labor (1913): Deals with
working conditions, wages of U.S. workers
9. Department of Health and Human Services
(1953): Works for the well-being of all
Americans
10. Department of Housing and Urban
Development (1965): Deals with the
special needs and problems of cities
11. Department of Transportation (1966):
Manages the nation’s highways,
railroads, airlines, and sea traffic
12. Department of Energy (1977): Directs
the overall energy plan for the nation
Department of Education (1979):
Provides advice and funding for schools
14. Department of Veterans Affairs (1989):
Directs services for armed forces
veterans
15. Department of Homeland Security
(2002): Oversees America’s defenses
against terrorist attacks
13.

The Federal Bureaucracy
› Agencies, corporations, boards, and
commissions that rank below the Cabinet
departments
› More than 3 million civilians
› Bureaucrats or civil servants: the people that
work for the above organizations

3 Goals of the Federal Bureaucracy
› 1. Turn new laws into action by deciding
how to apply the laws to daily life
› 2. Departments and agencies administer the
day-to-day operations of the federal
government
› 3. Federal agencies, with authority from
Congress, regulate various activities
 Broadcasting companies, labor unions, banks,
airlines, nuclear power plans etc.

Independent Agencies: not part of the
Cabinet
› Executive Agencies
 Responsible for dealing with certain specialized areas
within the government
 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
› Government Corporations
 Like a private business, except the government rather
than individuals own and operate them
 President appoints a board of directors and a general
manager to run each corporation with Senate approval
› Regulatory Boards and Commissions
 Protects the public. They make and enforce rules for
certain industries or groups.
 Federal Communications commissions (FCC)

Government Workers
› Political Appointees – Top leadership jobs.
President chooses these positions (either
because they are very qualified or because
they were supporters of his campaign).
Employment usually ends when the president
leaves office.
› Civil Service Workers – 90% of government
employees. Permanent employees.
 Civil Service System – practice of hiring government
workers on the basis of open, competitive
examinations and merit.
 The Spoils System: jobs went to people as a reward for their
political support

“To the victor belong the spoils (jobs)”
 The Merit System:


Standards set for federal jobs. Demanding tests are given
to people who want those jobs. Government officials hire
new workers from lists of people who have passed the
tests or otherwise met civil service standards.
The Pendleton Act – Created the civil service system and
placed limits on the number of jobs that they president
could “give out” to his friends, family and supporters

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