How Do We Judge Whether Lesson Study is Working? Others?

Report
How Do We Judge Whether
Lesson Study is Working?
How Do We Prove It To
Others?
This material is based upon work supported by the
National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0207259.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or
recommendations expressed in this material are those
of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views
of the National Science Foundation.
Traveler, there is no road. The
road is created as we walk it
together.
Antonio Machado
Goals
• Advance our understanding of lesson study
and its evaluation
• Examine potential measures of lesson study
progress
• Identify measures for our own work
• Formulate a networking plan (if desired)
sources
Lesson Study
Planning
Phase
• Collaborative planning
• Discuss goals for students & content
• Study available units & lessons
• Build from an existing lesson
Lesson Study
Planning
Phase
Research
Lesson
• 1 teacher teaches; others observe/ collect data
• Designed to bring to life a particular
goal/ vision of education
• Record lesson - video, audio, student
work, observation notes
Lesson Study
Planning
Phase
Research
Lesson
Post-Lesson
Activities
• Formally debrief lesson
• Share data
• Draw implications for lesson and teachinglearning more broadly
• Revise and re-teach if desired
Lesson Study
1. STUDY
Consider long term goals for
student learning and
development
Study curriculum and
standards
4. REFLECT
Select or revise research
lesson
Share data
What was learned about
students learning, lesson
design, this content?
What are implications for this
lesson and instruction more
broadly?
2. PLAN
Do task
Anticipate student responses
Plan data collection and lesson
3. DO RESEARCH
LESSON
Conduct research lesson
Collect data
How does lesson study improve instruction?
Visible
Features of
Lesson Study
•Consider Goals
•Study Curriculum and
Standards
•Plan and Conduct Research
Lesson
•Collect Data
•Debrief Lesson
•Use Debrief to Inform
Instruction
?
Instructional
Improvement
A Common Early Conception of Lesson Study
Visible
Features of
Lesson Study
 Plan
 Teach
 Observe
 Discuss
 Etc.
Key Pathway
Lesson Plans
Improve
Instructional
Improvement
How Does Lesson Study Improve Instruction?
Visible
Features of Lesson
Study
•Consider Goals
•Study Curriculum
and Standards
•Plan and Conduct
Research Lesson
•Collect Data
•Debrief Lesson
•Use Debrief to
Inform Instruction
•What Else?
Cause Changes In:
•Teachers
-Knowledge of subject
matter and its teaching
-General knowledge of
instruction
-Ability to observe
students
Result in Changes in
Teaching-Learning
Specific Examples:
Teaching
-Offer high-level task
-Connection of daily
instruction to long-term
goals
-Motivation/willingness
to improve
-Capacity to learn
together, collegial
networks
•Curriculum
-Better lessons
-Choice of better
curricula
•System
-Changes in policy
-Changes in learning
structures
Learning
-Student journals reveal
thinking re: proportional
reasoning
Can patterns help us find an easy way
to answer the question:
How many seats fit around a row of
triangle tables?
What Happens Over Lesson Study Cycles?
Builds:
- Knowledge
Lesson Study
Lesson Study
- Motivation to
Improve
Collective Work
Lesson Study
1. STUDY
Consider long term goals for
student learning and
development
Study curriculum and
standards
4. REFLECT
Select or revise research
lesson
Share data
What was learned about
students learning, lesson
design, this content?
What are implications for this
lesson and instruction more
broadly?
2. PLAN
Do task
Anticipate student responses
Plan data collection and lesson
3. DO RESEARCH
LESSON
Conduct research lesson
Collect data
Measures Related to Instruction
• Specific to topic:
Yoshida: counting by ones vs. chunking
R. Perry: ideas about proportional reasoning
• General to subject area:
MK Stein: Mathematical task level
• General to teaching-learning:
Student discourse
Low-Stakes, High-Yield
Assessment
Measures that reveal student thinking in ways
that help you build learning
“Use of assessments in an ongoing and repeated manner to monitor the
qualities of teaching and learning, where the goal is solely formative and
no high stakes are connected to the effort. My claim is that the two go
together; the higher the stakes attached to the assessment, the less likely
it is to yield useful diagnostic or formative information to the guide the
practice. Most of the energy of educational assessment specialists has
gone into "high stakes, low yield" assessments, given at the end of the
year or program, designed for a single administration, and with results far
too late to guide program modification or student work.”
Lee Shulman, Carnegie Endowment for the Advancement of Teaching
(NCTM, 2002)
Ideas From Planning
• Unit rate (value of a ratio)
relates equivalent
fractions;
• Relates to measurement;
• Uses division;
• Units (e.g., of 1) can be
grouped to form larger
units (e.g., of 5)
• Teachers don’t typically
think in units, but in
“simplest form”
(Lo, Watanabe, & Cai, 2004)
Ideas From Planning
• These methods differ from the standard
cross-multiply and divide algorithm
(McDougall
Littell, 2004)
video
Ideas from Post-Lesson Activities
• Double number line can summarize methods
Evaluation of Proportional
Reasoning
• How many of the research-identified
important ideas about proportional
reasoning came up in teachers’ planning?
• How many came up during the lesson?
Mathematical Task Level
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Non-Mathematical
Memorization
Procedures Without Connections
Procedures With Connections
Doing Mathematics
Stein, M.K., Smith, M.S., Henningsen, M., & Silver, E.A. (2000). Implementing
standards-based mathematics instruction: A casebook for professional
development. New York: Teachers College Press.
Smith, M.S., & Stein, M.K. (1998). Selecting and creating mathematical tasks:
From research to practice. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 3(5),
344-3
Levels of Math-Talk Community
Shift Over 0-3: Classroom community grows to
support
-student reasoning & contribution
-focus on mathematical thinking, not only answers
Shifts in 4 dimensions:
-Questioning
-Explaining Mathematical Thinking
-Source of Mathematical Ideas
-Responsibility for Learning
Hufferd-Ackles, Fuson, Sherin JRME Mar 2004 35: 2, 81-116
Motivation to Continue to
Improve Instruction
• Do teachers find their work useful?
• Are they motivated to continue it? Why or why
not?
• Do teachers feel commitment and connection to
group members? Do they feel responsibility to help
others improve?
Changes in Norms, Identity,
Learning Structures
Changes in:
• Beliefs about children & teaching
• Identity: see self as researcher, as
learner e.g., “kindergarten teachers
should know algebra”)
• Schedules & structures (e.g.,meetings)
Example: Capacity to Learn
Ex from www.stanford.edu/group/CRC
The teachers in this school
• Feel responsible to help each other do their
best
• Share ideas and teaching practices
Example: Beliefs about Students
Ex from www.stanford.edu/group/CRC
• By trying different teaching methods I can
significantly affect my students’
achievement level
• My expectations for my students’ learning
have been increasing
Lesson Study
Planning
Phase
Is the group building
• Knowledge?
-Drawing on excellent resources
-Solving, discussing mathematical tasks, predicting
student thinking
-Connecting prior & new ideas, exploring conflicts
• Motivation to Keep Improving Practice?
-Ownership of work, connection to own questions &
student needs
-Commitment, connection to colleagues
Lesson Study
Planning
Phase
Research
Lesson & Debrief
Is group building
Knowledge?
• Observational Skills
• Research Stance
• Grasp of Student Thinking
Motivation to Keep Improving Practice?
• Perceived Usefulness of Learning from Colleagues,
Students, Outside Resources
•Sense of Commitment, Connection
Lesson Study
Planning
Phase
Research
Lesson
Post-Lesson
Activities
Is the group building
• Knowledge?
-Continued Application to Practice
-Continued Information-Seeking
- New Questions
• Motivation to Keep Improving Practice?
- Perceived Usefulness of What Was Learned
- Valuing/Feeling Valued by Colleagues
Protocol for Sharing Plans
• Listen SILENTLY to evaluation presentation
(5 minutes)
• Write SILENTLY (5 minutes)
- Most important things that will be
learned from this evaluation
- What might be added/changed

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