Zambia Rachel Garvey Aoife O’Dwyer Caroline Walsh Country Profile Zambia is a landlocked country in south sub-Saharan Africa. It has a tropical climate with a rainy season from October to April. Arable land only accounts for 6.99% which has contributed to the high rate of poverty in the country. Population is approx. 12million Approx. 80% of the population is literate. The capital of Zambia is Lusaka. Two thirds of the population live under the national poverty line. Irish Aid donated €27 million to Zambia in 2008. Goal 7: To ensure environmental sustainability The challenge with this goal is in the term ‘sustainability’. Assessed by factors including proportion of people using an approved water source, proportion of urban population living in slums and CO2 emissions per capita. Environmental problems include air pollution, acid rain, chemical run-off into watersheds, poaching, deforestation and soil erosion. Zambia is so far, unlikely to reach this goal by 2015. Goal 7: Zambia’s Progress The CCFU was set up by the government to raise awareness of climate change and measures to respond to its challenges. Efforts to protect biodiversity have also been made through setting up special projects. At the 6th Annual MDG Race in Zambia, books and brochures were distributed to the general public in an effort to raise awareness of Goal 7. A vicious cycle is taking place with those living in poverty in rural areas using natural resources to survive, thereby depleting them and worsening the environmental situation. It is this link that is a major issue with Goal 7 and its targets not being achieved by the deadline. However target 10, which outlines improved water and sanitation services, has the potential to be reached by 2015. 73% of the population had access to improved drinking water sources in 2005/2006, a rise of 15% from 2004/2005. An improvement in the lives of slum dwellers depends on the proportion of the population with access to improved sanitation. Unless bold measures are taken by the government, Zambia is unlikely to achieve this goal by 2015. Goal 6:Combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases It is believed that around 42million people worldwide are living with HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS is number four in the Top 10 Causes of Death worldwide killing a total of 4.9% of people. Malaria terminates the lives of over one million people yearly and Tuberculosis kills two million people yearly. In Zambia, there were more than a million people infected with HIV/Aids in 2007, as well as 630,000 children orphaned by the disease. There are 75,000 new infections per year. By 2000, 749,000 people had died from AIDS and the projected AIDS death is estimated at 2.8 million by 2015. According to the Zambian Ministry of Health (2005), the following are the main reasons for the spread of HIV in Zambia: High levels of Poverty, Migrant workers, Cultural beliefs and practices, Stigma, Information, education, communication, Gender issues and Prison. Goal 6: Zambia’s Progress According to the Zambian Progress Report (2008), the Zambian government believed that it is likely that they will accomplish halting and begun to reverse the spred of HIV/AIDS by 2015. They also stated that they will potentially achieve in halting and reversing the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. The number of infected adults aged 15 to 49 years has decreased from 15.6 percent in 2001/2002 to 14.3 percent in 2007. The government is showing a supportive environment by introducing different initiatives and policies such as: The development and implementation of supportive health policies such as the National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Policy. Training of more medical staff to administer ART. In 2005, 700 medical personnel were trained. The establishment of more ART centers. The centers increased from two in 2004 to 84 by the end of 2005. Further the number of people accessing free ART increased from 16,000 in 2004 to 44,000 by the end of 2005 and about 110,000 in 2007. Training of more medical staff to administer ART. In 2005, 700 medical personnel were trained. The number of women who took antimalarial drugs during pregnancy increased from 35.8 percent in 2001 to 86.5 percent in 2007. The number of children under-five that sleep under bed nets treated with insecticide rose from 9.8 percent in 2001 to 28.6 percent in 2007, and for pregnant women, this rose from 7.9 percent in 2001 to 32.7 percent in 2007. They are putting a lot of effort into declining the amount of HIV/AIDS deaths in Zambia. They are doing little to combat tuberculosis: it is not even mentioned in their progress report. The cost of supplying everyone with mosquito nets is very expensive but they are making a positive move to increase the use of them and reduce the malaria death toll. Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty There have been marginal improvements in the incidence of extreme poverty from 58% in 1991 to 51% in 2006-still along way from MDG target of 29%. As the supportive environment is strong, Zambia has however the potential to reach this target. On the target of halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger, the prevalence of underweight children declined from 22% in 1991 to 14.6% in 2007. Thanks to the strong supportive environment it is likely that the target will be achieved. Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty Will target be met: POTENTIALLY Supportive environment:STRONG Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Will target be met: LIKELY Supportive environment: STRONG The incidence of extreme poverty has consistently been higher in the rural than in the urban areas. This may reflect the historical biases of public expenditure in favour of urban areas. Extreme poverty is more prevalent among female-headed households than among male-headed households. Zambia’s Progress Inefficient management of available resources in the agriculture sector has hindered rural economic infrastructure development and other programmes intended to integrate the smallholder farms into mainstream agricultural and general economic development. Severe income inequalities arising from inequitable labour and ineffective wage policies. Poor access to business finance and seed capital for small and medium enterprises including small scale mining. Historical public expenditure biases in favour of urban areas. Inadequacies in essential vocational skills which constrain productive deployment of youths in both wage and self employment. Lack of strategy to address the special circumstances of female-headed households that are particularly vulnerable to extreme poverty. Good periods of rainfall resulting in successive years of good crop harvests have contributed to Zambia’s food security. Moreover, targeted interventions in health and nutrition have also resulted in the improvement of underweight children. The prevalence of underweight children declined from 22 percent in 1991 to 14.6 percent in 2007 against the MDG target of 11 percentby 2015. However, food poverty still exists and foodsecurity still remains a challenge in pockets around the country Targeted interventions and ef fective delivery in health and nutrition. The percentage of children under six months who are exclusively breastfed increased between 2001 and 2007, coupled with a decrease in the percentage of children under five who are stunted. The adherence by the Ministry of Finance and National Planning to the full disbursement of budgeted resources for the social sectors. Government’s commitment to releasing in full, the social sector budget was reflected in releases of 98.6 percent for all social sectors in 2007 as compared to total releases of 84.2 percent in 2006. In the 2008 Budget, the shares of education and health have risen from 15 percent and 10.7 percent in 2007 to 15.4 percent and 11.5 percent respectively. Reaching Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) completion point and the resultant debt cancellation along with that of the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) is expected to create the fiscal space required for increased expenditures for poverty reduction programmes. The enhanced resources from the mining sector that can be anticipated as a result of the mineral tax reform proposed in the 2008 Budget are also expected to significantly enhance the fiscal space or the Government to address the challenges posed by poverty. Significant agricultural policies and programmes such as the irrigation credit fund. Current large investments in the mining and the tourism sector are expected to stimulate formal sector employment.