Chapter 7: Ethnicity

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Chapter 7: Ethnicity
• Key Issue 1: Where are ethnicities distributed?
Textbook Quiz 7-1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Clustering of ethnicities is most pronounced at the neighborhood level in most US
cities. (True/False)
Ethnic groups in the United States no longer conflict with one another.
(True/False)
The term ghettos identifies only the African American neighborhoods in the
United States. (True/False)
Slavery is a kind of ________ migration.
South Africa enacted legal segregation called ________. Blacks were supposed to
declare citizenship in a ________ and move there. In 1991 the legal system was
changed and ________ was elected president.
Match the ethnic group with the region of the United States where it is clustered.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Asian Americans
African Americans
Hispanics/Latinos
Alaska Natives
Native Americans
A) Southwest
B) California and Hawaii
C) Great Plains states, southwest
D) Midwest
E) Southeast
F) Alaska
Textbook Quiz 7-1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Clustering of ethnicities is most pronounced at the neighborhood level in most US
cities. TRUE
Ethnic groups in the United States no longer conflict with one another. FALSE
The term ghettos identifies only the African American neighborhoods in the
United States. FALSE
Slavery is a kind of _forced_ migration.
South Africa enacted legal segregation called _apartheid_. Blacks were supposed
to declare citizenship in a _homeland_ and move there. In 1991 the legal system
was changed and _Nelson Mandela_ was elected president.
Match the ethnic group with the region of the United States where it is clustered.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Asian Americans B
African Americans E
Hispanics/Latinos A
Alaska Natives F
Native Americans C
A) Southwest
B) California and Hawaii
C) Great Plains states, southwest
D) Midwest
E) Southeast
F) Alaska
Distribution of Ethnicities
• Ethnicities in the United States
– Clustering of ethnicities
– African American migration patterns
• Differentiating ethnicity and race
– Race in the United States
– Division by race in South Africa
President Obama illustrates the
complexity of designating race and
ethnicity in the United States
• POTUS’ father – Barack Obama Sr. was from
Kenya – Luo tribe
• POTUS’ mother – Ann Dunham was from Kansas
(British migrants 19th century)
• POTUS’ stepfather – Lolo Soetoro was from
Indonesia – Javanese tribe
• Obama = Son of a white mother and a black
father – chose to identify himself on the census
as “Black, African-American, or Negro”
TIGER WOODS
• Tiger defined
himself as
– Caucasian
– Black
– American Indian
– Asian
• CABLINASIAN
Ethnicity
• Ethnicity = from the Greek ethnikos, meaning
“national”
– Ethnicities share a cultural identity with people from
the same homeland
– Ethnicities have distinctive cultural traits
Ethnicity
The term ‘nation’ is often confused:
• The way that it is used in normal conversation is
synonymous with ‘state’ or ‘country’
• As used by social scientists, ‘nation’, is a group of
people represented by a singular culture.
• What defines a nation is a common identity
embodied in the term ‘ethnicity’.
Ethnicity
In the US today, "ethnicity" is often used as a euphemism for "race.”
There is no technical definition for ethnicity among social scientists
The term is typically used to indicate groupings of people that have
three characteristics:
1) a shared culture,
2) an alleged shared biological ancestry
3) a shared “homeland” or alleged origin place.
Since race is a social, rather than biological, concept, we can think of
races as a type of ethnicity that emphasizes the alleged shared
biological ancestry more than the other two components.
Ethnicity
Our textbook identifies ethnicity two different ways:
– “identity with a group of people who share the cultural
traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.”
– “a group of people that share distinct physical and
mental traits as a product of common heredity and
cultural traditions.”
Ethnicity in a nutshell is how we identify ourselves,
how we make sense of ourselves. It is how people
identify their group through actual or perceived
cultural traits.
Ethnicity
• No Single Trait Necessarily Defines a Person's
Ethnicity
• Ethnicity can be based on any trait or
combination of traits, including:
– Language (Quebec, Belgium)
– Religion (Northern Ireland)
– National Origin (Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans,
etc.)
– Regional Origin (territorial isolation) (Appalachian
“hillbillies”, New England “yankees”)
– Race
Race
• Definitions from your textbook:
– “identity with a group of people who share a biological
ancestor.”
– “identity with a group of people descended from a
common ancestor.”
• What society typically calls a “race” is in fact a
combination of physical attributes of a population.
Race
• The concept of race was developed by physical
anthropologists in the 1900’s. Researchers
categorized racial groups based on a number of
variables including:
– skin color
– eye color
– bone structure
– and the shape, size, and color of the hair shifts.
• These differences likely result from a long history of
adaptations to different environments.
Race
• Keep in mind that over time these formerly
scientific ideas were crudely used as the basis
for racism within society and have lead to
oppression, suffering, and war throughout the
world.
• Three large, distinct racial groups emerged
from this research:
– Mongoloid or Asian
– Caucasian or Indo-European
– Negroid or African
Race
• Three large, distinct racial
groups emerged from this
research:
– Mongoloid or Asiatic
•
•
•
•
Tan or yellowish skin tone
Small body structure
Straight hair shaft
Name comes from Mongolians
Race
• Three large, distinct racial
groups emerged from this
research:
– Caucasian or Indo-European
•
•
•
•
Light to dark skin tone
Medium body type
Wavy hair shaft
Name comes from the Caucasus
Mountains, which separate
Europe and Asia
Race
• Three large, distinct racial
groups emerged from this
research:
– Negroid or African
•
•
•
•
Dark skin tone
Medium body type
Curly hair shaft
Name comes from the Latin and
French term for the color black
Race
• Where do Native Americans fit in to this model?
• Native Americans share many features with Asiatic
features
– Genetic research has determined that Native Americans and
Mongoloids are genetically related
– Widely accepted theory is that Native Americans crossed
over the Bering land bridge during the last ice age.
Race
• Four additional small racial groups identified within the Pacific Islands
– Melanesians - New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Fiji
•
•
•
•
Dark skin colorations
Thin bodies
Angular facial features
Curly (sometimes blonde) hair
– Polynesians – Tonga, Samoa, New Zealand, Tahiti, Hawaii
• Brown skin color
• Heavyset body shape
• Curly hair shaft
– Micronesian – Marshall
and Caroline Islands
• Light brown skin
• Medium body shape
• Curly hair shaft
– Aboriginals – Australia
• Light brown skin
• Medium body type
• Wavy hair shaft
Race
• Mixed Race Cultures
– Indigenous Populations – single race of people who
originally settled an area
– Mestizos – European and Native American backgrounds
– Mulattos – African and European heritage
• Some places fallen out of favor because of its history as a
derogatory term
• Other places it is an accepted or even legal term
– Garifuna – African and Native American backgrounds
– Creole – European, Native American, and African
Race vs. Ethnicity
• A person's race may or may not be the same as a
person's ethnicity. What differentiates race and
ethnicity is not always clear. However, ethnicity is
usually seen to incorporate more than just race.
• Race is biological and not chosen, whereas ethnicity is
more of an attachment to a group of people and set of
customs.
• 2010 U.S. Census racial data
–
–
–
–
–
White: 72 percent
Black: 13 percent
Asian: 5 percent
Other race: 7 percent
Two or more races: 3 percent
What is ethnicity? How is it different
than race?
Mongolian
Turkish
Armenian
Japanese
Kazakh
Thai
Native American
Chinese
Race vs. Ethnicity
In the US the concepts of race and ethnicity are often confused
– sometimes by law:
• “Asian” is recognized by the US Census Bureau as a race (so
that people from Pakistan, China, Japan, Papua New Guinea,
etc. will all be classified as being of the same “race”).
• “African-American” is recognized as a race, but it is not
necessarily the same as “black.” There are many “Blacks”
who trace their cultural heritage – and their ethnic identity –
to countries in the Caribbean or Latin America.
• “Hispanic” (Latino) is considered an ethnicity, not a race.
Hispanics may therefore be of any race. Generally refers to
any person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central
American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of
race
Race, Racism, and Prejudice
• Racism: “belief that race is the primary determinant
of human traits and capacities and that racial
differences produce an inherent superiority of a
particular race.”
– Extreme example is Nazism of the 1920’s, which saw the
Germanic or Aryan race as superior to all others- at the
expense of the other races, including other European
ethnic groups, which (ironically) were also Caucasian
• Prejudice: a preformed, unsupported judgment or
opinion about a person or a group of people, based
on stereotypes.
• Xenophobia: The fear of all outsiders
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• The 2000 census showed in dramatic fashion the
extent to which the American cultural landscape
has become truly multicultural.
• Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans, and other
once “minority” ethnic groups are now part of a
culturally diverse nation in which a clear ethnic
majority no longer exists.
• Globalization has literally changed the face of
America over the past ten years. The American
populace looks very different than it did just ten
years ago.
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• Distribution of ethnicities in the United
States (2000 Census)
– Hispanics (Latinos) = 16.3 percent of the U.S.
population
– African Americans = 12.6 percent of the U.S.
population
– Asian Americans = 4.8 percent of the U.S.
population
– American Indians = 1 percent of the U.S.
population
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
General pattern
• African-Americans in Southeast
• Hispanics in Southwest
• Asians in West
• Native Americans in Southwest & Plains
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
At the regional scale different ethnicities have
distinct patterns of distribution:
• African-Americans
– African-Americans are about 1⁄4 of the population
in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and South
Carolina, and about 1/3 of the population in
Mississippi.
– African-Americans are less than 1% of the
population in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont,
Idaho, Montana, North and South Dakota, Utah
and Wyoming.
Distribution of African Americans
in the United States
Figure 7-2
Distribution of African Americans
in the United States
Figure 7-2
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
At the regional scale different ethnicities have
distinct patterns of distribution:
• “Hispanics” (Latinos)
– “Hispanics” are about 1/5 (or more) of the
population in California, New Mexico and Texas.
– “Hispanics” are less than 1% of the population in
Maine, Vermont, North and South Dakota, West
Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, South Carolina,
Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas.
Distribution of Hispanics
in the United States
Figure 7-1
Distribution of Hispanics
in the United States
Figure 7-1
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
At the regional scale different ethnicities have
distinct patterns of distribution:
• “Asians”
– “Asians” are about 5% (or more) of the population
in Alaska, California, Washington, Nevada,
Minnesota, New York, Vermont, Massachusetts,
New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia.
– “Asians” are less than 1% of the population in 29
States.
Distribution of Asian Americans
in the United States
Figure 7-3
Distribution of Asian Americans
in the United States
Figure 7-3
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
At the regional scale different ethnicities have
distinct patterns of distribution:
• Native Americans (“Indians” and Alaska
Natives)
– Native Americans are 10% or more of the
population in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma,
Montana and South Dakota.
– Native Americans are less than 1% of the
population in 27 States.
Distribution of American Indians
in the United States
Figure 7-4
Where are Ethnicities Distributed?
• Some ethnicities are highly concentrated in urban areas in
some parts of the US.
• In some States the urban concentration can be extreme:
– Detroit is 82% African-American; the rest of Michigan is 6% African
American.
– Chicago is 39% African-American; the rest of Illinois is 7% AfricanAmerican.
– New York City is 24% Latino; the rest of New York is 4% Latino.
– Cities with the highest percentage of African-Americans:
•
•
•
•
Gary, IN - 84.0%
Detroit, MI - 81.6%
Birmingham, AL - 73.5%
Jackson, MS - 70.6%
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• The process of migration, particularly chain
migration, makes America’s ethnic mosaic
possible. Many American cities display
their ethnic diversity in ethnic
neighborhoods, or concentrations of
people from the same ethnicity in certain
pockets of the city.
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• Concentration of ethnicities in U.S.
cities
– 90 percent of African Americans and
Hispanics live in cities
– Remnants of twentieth-century European
migration = still evident on the landscape
• Example: clustering of restaurants in Little Italy,
Greektown, Chinatown
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
The most common examples are the various
“Chinatowns” that exist in cities such as New
York, Chicago, and San Francisco.
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• Unfortunately, sometimes ethnics groups
are essentially forced to live in certain
segregated pars of the city. These ethnic
neighborhoods are called ghettos and their
locations tend to be some of the least
desirable within the city.
ASIANS
Complete each of the 4 levels
Level 1 : What, Where and When (2000) ?
Level 2: Pattern ID: Identify 2 patterns for each slide in your notebook.
Level 3: Why does the pattern exist?
Level 4: So what do we do with that information?
AFRICAN-AMERICANS
Complete each of the 4 levels
Level 1 : What, Where and When (2000) ?
Level 2: Pattern ID: Identify 2 patterns for each slide in your notebook.
Level 3: Why does the pattern exist?
Level 4: So what do we do with that information?
HISPANICS
Complete each of the 4 levels
Level 1 : What, Where and When (2000) ?
Level 2: Pattern ID: Identify 2 patterns for each slide in your notebook.
Level 3: Why does the pattern exist?
Level 4: So what do we do with that information?
CAUCASIANS
Complete each of the 4 levels
Level 1 : What, Where and When (2000) ?
Level 2: Pattern ID: Identify 2 patterns for each slide in your notebook.
Level 3: Why does the pattern exist?
Level 4: So what do we do with that information?
US Ethnic Concentrations
(Ethnic Provinces)
Where Minorities Live
• African Americans
o Over half (56%) in the South
• Hispanics
o 64% in 5 States
o CA, AZ, NM, CO, and TX
• Asians
o 59% in the Western US
o 3 state concentrations
 California . . . 40%
 New York . . . 10%
 Hawaii . . . . . 10%
• Native Americans
o Nearly half (48%) in the Western US
Effects of Ethnic Concentrations
•Other
effects . .
USA: Predominant restaurant cuisine by type
Utah: an Ethnic Island?
Utah is second in the nation
only to Hawaii for the
percentage of residents who
are Native Hawaiian or other
Pacific Islander.
Two cities in the state – West
Valley City and Salt Lake City
– claim some of the highest
percentages of Pacific
Islanders in the nation.
Finding other ethnic
islands and provinces
Does race matter?
APPARENTLY
•Where do we live?
o Over 61% of whites live in suburbs
o 55% of blacks live in inner-cities
•How much to we make?
o Median income for whites is $35,750
o Median income for blacks is $20,000
•Do we own or rent?
o 73% of whites own
o 45% of blacks own
•Other questions . . .
Distribution of Ethnicities in Chicago and
Los Angeles
Figure 7-5
Figure 7-6
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• African American migration patterns
– Three major migration patterns
1. Forced migration from Africa (eighteenth century)
2. Immigration from the South to northern cities (first half
of the twentieth century)
3. Immigration out of inner cities to other urban areas
(second half of the twentieth century to present)
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• African American migration patterns
1. Forced migration from Africa (eighteenth century)
• During the era of the African slave trade, 10-30 million Africans
were sold into slavery.
• During the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, between one-half
and one million Africans were brought to the British Colonies
and the US.
• “The Triangle Trade”
Triangular Slave Pattern
Figure 7-8
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• African American migration patterns
2. Immigration from the South to northern cities (first
half of the twentieth century)
• After the Civil War slavery ended – but most former slaves had
no education or training.
• Sharecropping was the only occupation open to most (renting
farm land, paying in crops).
• Nevertheless, a few managed to migrate for economic (and
social) advancement to Northern cities.
• Prejudice and discrimination meant that African-Americans
couldn't just settle anywhere they wanted in Northern cities.
African American Migration in the United
States (Twentieth Century)
Figure 7-10
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
Several practices created urban ghettos.
– Redlining: “drawing lines on a map to identify areas ... [where
banks, realtors, insurance agents, etc.] will refuse to loan money
[or provide other services].”
– Restrictive covenants: Prevented home owners from selling to
blacks, Roman Catholics, or Jews.
– Blockbusting: “real estate agents convinced white homeowners
living near a black area to sell their houses a low prices, preying
on their fears that black families would soon move into the
neighborhood and cause property values to decline. The agents
then sold the houses at much higher prices to black families
desperate to escape the overcrowded ghettos.”
– “White flight” is the rapid fleeing of whites from the cities as black
families emigrate out of the ghettos, or as the ghetto expands. It
was encouraged by blockbusting.
Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
• African American migration patterns
3. Immigration out of inner cities to other urban areas
(second half of the twentieth century to present)
• Segregation laws were eliminated in the 1950s and 1960s;
racial separation was legally ended.
• Courts ordered the integration of schools. Many whites
South Africa and Apartheid
• History of South Africa
– Originally occupied by Khoisan (“Hottentot”) peoples.
– Dutch arrived 1652, established Cape Town.
– Competition between Afrikaners and Bantu peoples in the 18th and
early 19th centuries.
– British seized the Cape Colony twice in 1795 and 1806; purchased the
Colony from the Dutch in 1814 for £6 million.
– In 1822 English became the official language; in 1833 slavery was
abolished.
– In protest, in 1833 12,000 “Boers” made the “voortrek” inland,
eventually establishing the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
– Diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal in 1886; British
miners were denied civil rights and taxed heavily; Britain began
policies resulting in the Boer War (1899-1902).
– In 1902 the Afrikaner states became colonies within the British Empire.
– In 1931 South Africa became an independent country
– In 1948 Afrikaners won national elections and began the policy of
“apartheid” (separation – or “apartness” – by race).
South Africa and Apartheid
• Race and Apartheid
– Between 1948 and 1994 there were four official South
African “races”:
• White (13% of the population).
• Black (76% of the population).
• Asian (3% of the population – descendants of migrants from
India and Pakistan).
• Coloured (9% of the population – people of mixed race).
– Under apartheid races were kept legally separate –
where you lived, worked, went to school, shopped,
owned land, who you could marry, etc. – was
determined by race.
Apartheid
Figure 7-13
South Africa and Apartheid
• South African Homelands
– Because of its racial policies, many countries cut off political
and economic relations with South Africa during the 1970s
and 1980s.
– In what is perhaps the cleverest (and most twisted) racial
scheme of the 20th century, South Africa devised a plan:
• Since other countries objected to South Africa's disenfranchising 3⁄4
of its citizens – make them citizens of somewhere else!
– Ten “homelands” were established:
• One black group would be dominant in each region, and every black
South Africa would become a citizen of one of the ten, based on
tribal affiliation.
– The homelands were supposed to be “independent,” but
could not possibly support the black population of South
Africa – so that they were in fact totally dependent on South
Africa.
South Africa and Apartheid
• Dismantling of Apartheid
– In 1991, in response to continuing internal unrest and
military defeat in Angola, the South African government
began to dismantle apartheid.
– The African National Congress Party, after being banned for
30 years, was made legalized, and its leader, Nelson
Mandela, was released from prison after 27 ½ years.
– In 1994 Mandela was elected South Africa's first black
President.
– Established in 1995, the Truth & Reconciliation Commission
investigated South African human rights abuses.
– In 2003 the TRC began paying reparations to 22,000
identified victims of victims of Apartheid.
Looking forward:
Key Issue 2: Why have ethnicities been
transformed into nationalities?
Key Issue 3: Why do ethnicities clash?
Key Issue 4: What is ethnic cleansing?

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