Chapter 7: Ethnicity • Key Issue 1: Where are ethnicities distributed? Textbook Quiz 7-1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Clustering of ethnicities is most pronounced at the neighborhood level in most US cities. (True/False) Ethnic groups in the United States no longer conflict with one another. (True/False) The term ghettos identifies only the African American neighborhoods in the United States. (True/False) Slavery is a kind of ________ migration. South Africa enacted legal segregation called ________. Blacks were supposed to declare citizenship in a ________ and move there. In 1991 the legal system was changed and ________ was elected president. Match the ethnic group with the region of the United States where it is clustered. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Asian Americans African Americans Hispanics/Latinos Alaska Natives Native Americans A) Southwest B) California and Hawaii C) Great Plains states, southwest D) Midwest E) Southeast F) Alaska Textbook Quiz 7-1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Clustering of ethnicities is most pronounced at the neighborhood level in most US cities. TRUE Ethnic groups in the United States no longer conflict with one another. FALSE The term ghettos identifies only the African American neighborhoods in the United States. FALSE Slavery is a kind of _forced_ migration. South Africa enacted legal segregation called _apartheid_. Blacks were supposed to declare citizenship in a _homeland_ and move there. In 1991 the legal system was changed and _Nelson Mandela_ was elected president. Match the ethnic group with the region of the United States where it is clustered. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Asian Americans B African Americans E Hispanics/Latinos A Alaska Natives F Native Americans C A) Southwest B) California and Hawaii C) Great Plains states, southwest D) Midwest E) Southeast F) Alaska Distribution of Ethnicities • Ethnicities in the United States – Clustering of ethnicities – African American migration patterns • Differentiating ethnicity and race – Race in the United States – Division by race in South Africa President Obama illustrates the complexity of designating race and ethnicity in the United States • POTUS’ father – Barack Obama Sr. was from Kenya – Luo tribe • POTUS’ mother – Ann Dunham was from Kansas (British migrants 19th century) • POTUS’ stepfather – Lolo Soetoro was from Indonesia – Javanese tribe • Obama = Son of a white mother and a black father – chose to identify himself on the census as “Black, African-American, or Negro” TIGER WOODS • Tiger defined himself as – Caucasian – Black – American Indian – Asian • CABLINASIAN Ethnicity • Ethnicity = from the Greek ethnikos, meaning “national” – Ethnicities share a cultural identity with people from the same homeland – Ethnicities have distinctive cultural traits Ethnicity The term ‘nation’ is often confused: • The way that it is used in normal conversation is synonymous with ‘state’ or ‘country’ • As used by social scientists, ‘nation’, is a group of people represented by a singular culture. • What defines a nation is a common identity embodied in the term ‘ethnicity’. Ethnicity In the US today, "ethnicity" is often used as a euphemism for "race.” There is no technical definition for ethnicity among social scientists The term is typically used to indicate groupings of people that have three characteristics: 1) a shared culture, 2) an alleged shared biological ancestry 3) a shared “homeland” or alleged origin place. Since race is a social, rather than biological, concept, we can think of races as a type of ethnicity that emphasizes the alleged shared biological ancestry more than the other two components. Ethnicity Our textbook identifies ethnicity two different ways: – “identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.” – “a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.” Ethnicity in a nutshell is how we identify ourselves, how we make sense of ourselves. It is how people identify their group through actual or perceived cultural traits. Ethnicity • No Single Trait Necessarily Defines a Person's Ethnicity • Ethnicity can be based on any trait or combination of traits, including: – Language (Quebec, Belgium) – Religion (Northern Ireland) – National Origin (Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans, etc.) – Regional Origin (territorial isolation) (Appalachian “hillbillies”, New England “yankees”) – Race Race • Definitions from your textbook: – “identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor.” – “identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.” • What society typically calls a “race” is in fact a combination of physical attributes of a population. Race • The concept of race was developed by physical anthropologists in the 1900’s. Researchers categorized racial groups based on a number of variables including: – skin color – eye color – bone structure – and the shape, size, and color of the hair shifts. • These differences likely result from a long history of adaptations to different environments. Race • Keep in mind that over time these formerly scientific ideas were crudely used as the basis for racism within society and have lead to oppression, suffering, and war throughout the world. • Three large, distinct racial groups emerged from this research: – Mongoloid or Asian – Caucasian or Indo-European – Negroid or African Race • Three large, distinct racial groups emerged from this research: – Mongoloid or Asiatic • • • • Tan or yellowish skin tone Small body structure Straight hair shaft Name comes from Mongolians Race • Three large, distinct racial groups emerged from this research: – Caucasian or Indo-European • • • • Light to dark skin tone Medium body type Wavy hair shaft Name comes from the Caucasus Mountains, which separate Europe and Asia Race • Three large, distinct racial groups emerged from this research: – Negroid or African • • • • Dark skin tone Medium body type Curly hair shaft Name comes from the Latin and French term for the color black Race • Where do Native Americans fit in to this model? • Native Americans share many features with Asiatic features – Genetic research has determined that Native Americans and Mongoloids are genetically related – Widely accepted theory is that Native Americans crossed over the Bering land bridge during the last ice age. Race • Four additional small racial groups identified within the Pacific Islands – Melanesians - New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Fiji • • • • Dark skin colorations Thin bodies Angular facial features Curly (sometimes blonde) hair – Polynesians – Tonga, Samoa, New Zealand, Tahiti, Hawaii • Brown skin color • Heavyset body shape • Curly hair shaft – Micronesian – Marshall and Caroline Islands • Light brown skin • Medium body shape • Curly hair shaft – Aboriginals – Australia • Light brown skin • Medium body type • Wavy hair shaft Race • Mixed Race Cultures – Indigenous Populations – single race of people who originally settled an area – Mestizos – European and Native American backgrounds – Mulattos – African and European heritage • Some places fallen out of favor because of its history as a derogatory term • Other places it is an accepted or even legal term – Garifuna – African and Native American backgrounds – Creole – European, Native American, and African Race vs. Ethnicity • A person's race may or may not be the same as a person's ethnicity. What differentiates race and ethnicity is not always clear. However, ethnicity is usually seen to incorporate more than just race. • Race is biological and not chosen, whereas ethnicity is more of an attachment to a group of people and set of customs. • 2010 U.S. Census racial data – – – – – White: 72 percent Black: 13 percent Asian: 5 percent Other race: 7 percent Two or more races: 3 percent What is ethnicity? How is it different than race? Mongolian Turkish Armenian Japanese Kazakh Thai Native American Chinese Race vs. Ethnicity In the US the concepts of race and ethnicity are often confused – sometimes by law: • “Asian” is recognized by the US Census Bureau as a race (so that people from Pakistan, China, Japan, Papua New Guinea, etc. will all be classified as being of the same “race”). • “African-American” is recognized as a race, but it is not necessarily the same as “black.” There are many “Blacks” who trace their cultural heritage – and their ethnic identity – to countries in the Caribbean or Latin America. • “Hispanic” (Latino) is considered an ethnicity, not a race. Hispanics may therefore be of any race. Generally refers to any person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race Race, Racism, and Prejudice • Racism: “belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.” – Extreme example is Nazism of the 1920’s, which saw the Germanic or Aryan race as superior to all others- at the expense of the other races, including other European ethnic groups, which (ironically) were also Caucasian • Prejudice: a preformed, unsupported judgment or opinion about a person or a group of people, based on stereotypes. • Xenophobia: The fear of all outsiders Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • The 2000 census showed in dramatic fashion the extent to which the American cultural landscape has become truly multicultural. • Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans, and other once “minority” ethnic groups are now part of a culturally diverse nation in which a clear ethnic majority no longer exists. • Globalization has literally changed the face of America over the past ten years. The American populace looks very different than it did just ten years ago. Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • Distribution of ethnicities in the United States (2000 Census) – Hispanics (Latinos) = 16.3 percent of the U.S. population – African Americans = 12.6 percent of the U.S. population – Asian Americans = 4.8 percent of the U.S. population – American Indians = 1 percent of the U.S. population Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? General pattern • African-Americans in Southeast • Hispanics in Southwest • Asians in West • Native Americans in Southwest & Plains Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? At the regional scale different ethnicities have distinct patterns of distribution: • African-Americans – African-Americans are about 1⁄4 of the population in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and South Carolina, and about 1/3 of the population in Mississippi. – African-Americans are less than 1% of the population in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Idaho, Montana, North and South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming. Distribution of African Americans in the United States Figure 7-2 Distribution of African Americans in the United States Figure 7-2 Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? At the regional scale different ethnicities have distinct patterns of distribution: • “Hispanics” (Latinos) – “Hispanics” are about 1/5 (or more) of the population in California, New Mexico and Texas. – “Hispanics” are less than 1% of the population in Maine, Vermont, North and South Dakota, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas. Distribution of Hispanics in the United States Figure 7-1 Distribution of Hispanics in the United States Figure 7-1 Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? At the regional scale different ethnicities have distinct patterns of distribution: • “Asians” – “Asians” are about 5% (or more) of the population in Alaska, California, Washington, Nevada, Minnesota, New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia. – “Asians” are less than 1% of the population in 29 States. Distribution of Asian Americans in the United States Figure 7-3 Distribution of Asian Americans in the United States Figure 7-3 Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? At the regional scale different ethnicities have distinct patterns of distribution: • Native Americans (“Indians” and Alaska Natives) – Native Americans are 10% or more of the population in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Montana and South Dakota. – Native Americans are less than 1% of the population in 27 States. Distribution of American Indians in the United States Figure 7-4 Where are Ethnicities Distributed? • Some ethnicities are highly concentrated in urban areas in some parts of the US. • In some States the urban concentration can be extreme: – Detroit is 82% African-American; the rest of Michigan is 6% African American. – Chicago is 39% African-American; the rest of Illinois is 7% AfricanAmerican. – New York City is 24% Latino; the rest of New York is 4% Latino. – Cities with the highest percentage of African-Americans: • • • • Gary, IN - 84.0% Detroit, MI - 81.6% Birmingham, AL - 73.5% Jackson, MS - 70.6% Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • The process of migration, particularly chain migration, makes America’s ethnic mosaic possible. Many American cities display their ethnic diversity in ethnic neighborhoods, or concentrations of people from the same ethnicity in certain pockets of the city. Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • Concentration of ethnicities in U.S. cities – 90 percent of African Americans and Hispanics live in cities – Remnants of twentieth-century European migration = still evident on the landscape • Example: clustering of restaurants in Little Italy, Greektown, Chinatown Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? The most common examples are the various “Chinatowns” that exist in cities such as New York, Chicago, and San Francisco. Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • Unfortunately, sometimes ethnics groups are essentially forced to live in certain segregated pars of the city. These ethnic neighborhoods are called ghettos and their locations tend to be some of the least desirable within the city. ASIANS Complete each of the 4 levels Level 1 : What, Where and When (2000) ? Level 2: Pattern ID: Identify 2 patterns for each slide in your notebook. Level 3: Why does the pattern exist? Level 4: So what do we do with that information? AFRICAN-AMERICANS Complete each of the 4 levels Level 1 : What, Where and When (2000) ? Level 2: Pattern ID: Identify 2 patterns for each slide in your notebook. Level 3: Why does the pattern exist? Level 4: So what do we do with that information? HISPANICS Complete each of the 4 levels Level 1 : What, Where and When (2000) ? Level 2: Pattern ID: Identify 2 patterns for each slide in your notebook. Level 3: Why does the pattern exist? Level 4: So what do we do with that information? CAUCASIANS Complete each of the 4 levels Level 1 : What, Where and When (2000) ? Level 2: Pattern ID: Identify 2 patterns for each slide in your notebook. Level 3: Why does the pattern exist? Level 4: So what do we do with that information? US Ethnic Concentrations (Ethnic Provinces) Where Minorities Live • African Americans o Over half (56%) in the South • Hispanics o 64% in 5 States o CA, AZ, NM, CO, and TX • Asians o 59% in the Western US o 3 state concentrations California . . . 40% New York . . . 10% Hawaii . . . . . 10% • Native Americans o Nearly half (48%) in the Western US Effects of Ethnic Concentrations •Other effects . . USA: Predominant restaurant cuisine by type Utah: an Ethnic Island? Utah is second in the nation only to Hawaii for the percentage of residents who are Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. Two cities in the state – West Valley City and Salt Lake City – claim some of the highest percentages of Pacific Islanders in the nation. Finding other ethnic islands and provinces Does race matter? APPARENTLY •Where do we live? o Over 61% of whites live in suburbs o 55% of blacks live in inner-cities •How much to we make? o Median income for whites is $35,750 o Median income for blacks is $20,000 •Do we own or rent? o 73% of whites own o 45% of blacks own •Other questions . . . Distribution of Ethnicities in Chicago and Los Angeles Figure 7-5 Figure 7-6 Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • African American migration patterns – Three major migration patterns 1. Forced migration from Africa (eighteenth century) 2. Immigration from the South to northern cities (first half of the twentieth century) 3. Immigration out of inner cities to other urban areas (second half of the twentieth century to present) Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • African American migration patterns 1. Forced migration from Africa (eighteenth century) • During the era of the African slave trade, 10-30 million Africans were sold into slavery. • During the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, between one-half and one million Africans were brought to the British Colonies and the US. • “The Triangle Trade” Triangular Slave Pattern Figure 7-8 Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • African American migration patterns 2. Immigration from the South to northern cities (first half of the twentieth century) • After the Civil War slavery ended – but most former slaves had no education or training. • Sharecropping was the only occupation open to most (renting farm land, paying in crops). • Nevertheless, a few managed to migrate for economic (and social) advancement to Northern cities. • Prejudice and discrimination meant that African-Americans couldn't just settle anywhere they wanted in Northern cities. African American Migration in the United States (Twentieth Century) Figure 7-10 Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? Several practices created urban ghettos. – Redlining: “drawing lines on a map to identify areas ... [where banks, realtors, insurance agents, etc.] will refuse to loan money [or provide other services].” – Restrictive covenants: Prevented home owners from selling to blacks, Roman Catholics, or Jews. – Blockbusting: “real estate agents convinced white homeowners living near a black area to sell their houses a low prices, preying on their fears that black families would soon move into the neighborhood and cause property values to decline. The agents then sold the houses at much higher prices to black families desperate to escape the overcrowded ghettos.” – “White flight” is the rapid fleeing of whites from the cities as black families emigrate out of the ghettos, or as the ghetto expands. It was encouraged by blockbusting. Where Are Ethnicities Distributed? • African American migration patterns 3. Immigration out of inner cities to other urban areas (second half of the twentieth century to present) • Segregation laws were eliminated in the 1950s and 1960s; racial separation was legally ended. • Courts ordered the integration of schools. Many whites South Africa and Apartheid • History of South Africa – Originally occupied by Khoisan (“Hottentot”) peoples. – Dutch arrived 1652, established Cape Town. – Competition between Afrikaners and Bantu peoples in the 18th and early 19th centuries. – British seized the Cape Colony twice in 1795 and 1806; purchased the Colony from the Dutch in 1814 for £6 million. – In 1822 English became the official language; in 1833 slavery was abolished. – In protest, in 1833 12,000 “Boers” made the “voortrek” inland, eventually establishing the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. – Diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal in 1886; British miners were denied civil rights and taxed heavily; Britain began policies resulting in the Boer War (1899-1902). – In 1902 the Afrikaner states became colonies within the British Empire. – In 1931 South Africa became an independent country – In 1948 Afrikaners won national elections and began the policy of “apartheid” (separation – or “apartness” – by race). South Africa and Apartheid • Race and Apartheid – Between 1948 and 1994 there were four official South African “races”: • White (13% of the population). • Black (76% of the population). • Asian (3% of the population – descendants of migrants from India and Pakistan). • Coloured (9% of the population – people of mixed race). – Under apartheid races were kept legally separate – where you lived, worked, went to school, shopped, owned land, who you could marry, etc. – was determined by race. Apartheid Figure 7-13 South Africa and Apartheid • South African Homelands – Because of its racial policies, many countries cut off political and economic relations with South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s. – In what is perhaps the cleverest (and most twisted) racial scheme of the 20th century, South Africa devised a plan: • Since other countries objected to South Africa's disenfranchising 3⁄4 of its citizens – make them citizens of somewhere else! – Ten “homelands” were established: • One black group would be dominant in each region, and every black South Africa would become a citizen of one of the ten, based on tribal affiliation. – The homelands were supposed to be “independent,” but could not possibly support the black population of South Africa – so that they were in fact totally dependent on South Africa. South Africa and Apartheid • Dismantling of Apartheid – In 1991, in response to continuing internal unrest and military defeat in Angola, the South African government began to dismantle apartheid. – The African National Congress Party, after being banned for 30 years, was made legalized, and its leader, Nelson Mandela, was released from prison after 27 ½ years. – In 1994 Mandela was elected South Africa's first black President. – Established in 1995, the Truth & Reconciliation Commission investigated South African human rights abuses. – In 2003 the TRC began paying reparations to 22,000 identified victims of victims of Apartheid. Looking forward: Key Issue 2: Why have ethnicities been transformed into nationalities? Key Issue 3: Why do ethnicities clash? Key Issue 4: What is ethnic cleansing?