Craniofacial disorders… • Aperts syndrome • Crouzons (Williams) syndrome

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Craniofacial disorders…
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Aperts syndrome
Crouzons (Williams) syndrome
Pierre Robin syndrome
Cleft Palate
Craniofacial Anaomolies
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Aperts syndrome
• Fusion of skull bones.
Often found with high
arched palate which
can affect speech
production.
• High incidence of
middle ear difficulties
including hearing
loss.
• Genetic disorder
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Aperts syndrome
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Crouzons syndrome
• Also known as William’s syndrome
• Somewhat similar to Aperts because of premature
closure of cranial sutures.
• High incidence of cleft palate.
• Also, a high incidence of middle ear problems
including hearing loss.
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Crouzons (Williams) syndrome
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Pierre Robin syndrome
• Characterized by micrognathia (small mandible),
downward displacement or retraction of the
tongue.
• High incidence of speech and hearing problems.
• 1/30,000 incidence.
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Cleft Lip or Palate
• Incomplete formation of the lip (cleft lip) or palate (cleft
palate) during pregnancy which occurs sometime between
the sixth and ninth week following conception.
• Incidence: 1 of 750 live births
• Other demographics:
– 25% have cleft lip only
– 25% have cleft palate only
– 50% have both
• Clefts can be either unilateral or bilateral.
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Unilateral Cleft
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Bilateral Cleft
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Basic Anatomy
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Nasal Cavity
• Large opening
superior to the palate
which communicates
with the sinuses and
nasopharynx.
• Purpose is to cleanse,
warm and humidify
the air during the
breathing process.
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Speech Patterns
• People with cleft palate will have hypernasal
speech because of the abnormal opening between
the oral and nasal cavities. This is most noticeable
with vowels.
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Speech Patterns (continued)
• People with cleft palate may also have
characteristics of hyponasal (denasal) speech due
to structural problems with the palate and nasal
cavity.
• This is most noticeable with nasal consonants such
as “m, n, and ng”
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Velopharyngeal Complex
• Velum - soft palate
• Nasopharynx - space
behind and above the
velum
• Posterior pharyngeal
wall - back of throat
• Levator palatini muscle
- used to close off the
velopharyngeal port.
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Swallowing Process
• When we swallow or
produce certain speech
sounds the levator
palatine muscle
contracts which has the
effect of lifting the
velum superiorly and
posteriorly (up and
back) and closes off the
velopharyngeal port.
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How Do Cleft Palates Develop?
• During 6th and 9th week of pregnancy the palate
will develop.
• Small bones which eventually will become the
hard palate fuse together.
• In cases of cleft palate, they never fuse.
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Speech of Children with Cleft Palate
• Characterized by a combination of hypernasal and
hyponasal speech
– Vowels will be hypernasal
– Nasal sounds such as “m,n,ng” often will sound
hyponasal.
• Tend to substitute glottal stops for normal stops.
– e.g., Bottle becomes bau*el. That is you close of the
airstream in the glottis instead of the oral cavity.
• Omit fricative sounds such as “sh, s, f, th”
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Assessment and Treatment of Cleft
Palate.
• Cleft Palate Team
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Speech-language pathologist
Audiologist
Otolaryngologist (ENT physician)
Orthodontics
Oral and Maxiollofacial surgery
Social worker
Psychologist
(see text page 272 for complete list)
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Medical Management and Treatment
• Surgery
• Pharyngeal flap
• Prosthetic device
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Speech treatment
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Articulation testing
Examination of speech production mechanism
Listener judgments of nasality.
Treatment involves working to correct articulation
errors and have patient work on reducing nasality
problems.
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