Document 7357594

Report
Characteristics of Wetlands

Must have

Hydrophytes
• Soils that are saturated, flooded or ponded long
enough to develop anaerobic conditions.

Hydrophilic plants
• From Reeds List

Standing water for all or part of the year.
Two Kinds of Wetlands
 Naturally
Occurring Wetland
 Constructed
Wetland
Naturally Occurring Wetland
Mangrove swamp on San Jose Island
Naturally Occurring Wetland

Two categories


Coastal Wetland ~ 11
million hectares
Inland Wetland ~ 32
million hectares
Constructed Wetlands in the U.S
 Over
600 active projects across the United
States
 In Arizona ~ 26 on-site and constructed
wetlands operating in the State ~ 24
waiting to be approved or under
construction.
 1990 ~ 4 constructed Wetlands
Constructed Wetland


Wildlife Habitat
Integral Man-made system


Water, plants, microorganisms, soils, and air interact to improve
water quality.
Water treatment facility

Filtration and water regeneration
Uses of Constructed Wetlands
 Water

Treatment facility
Treat wastewater
 Wildlife

Refuge
Revival of species or introduction of new
species
 Restored

Wetland
Under rehabilitation
Two Systems of Constructed
Wetlands

Surface Flow System/
Free Water Wetland

Subsurface System
Advantages of Constructed
Wetlands







Low Construction and Operating Cost
Cheap alternative to wastewater filtration
High level of wastewater treatment
Efficient treatment of wastewater
Reduces if not eliminates odors
Able to handle variable wastewater loadings
Reduced land area needed for application of
wastewater
 Wildlife habitat
Construction & Operating Cost Constructed
Wetlands vs. Chemical Treatment Facilities

Constructed Wetlands  Chemical Treatment
Facility
 $2.5 million ~



construction cost
Minimal supervision
No chemical additions
required
Needs to be filtered
every 10 yrs
• ~ $100,000.00

$4.8 million ~ $8.8
million (construction
cost)
• Comparable size
High Level of Wastewater
Treatment

Figure 1 - Summary results
of the percentage of
pollutants removed from
three (3) demonstrational
constructed wetlands.
NOTE: In the case of
nitrate nitrogen on Site #1,
very little was present in the
inflow, so little could be
removed.

Kenneth D. Simeral
Associate Professor
The Ohio State University
Limitations
 Continuous
supply of water is needed.
 Affected by Seasonal Weather Conditions
 Can be Destroyed by an overload of solids
or ammonia levels
 Can remove Nutrients that can be used by
crops.

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