Virtual Reality

Report
VIRTUAL
REALITY’S
MOMENT
David Kushner
IEEE Spectrum
January 2014
IS 376
August 21, 2014
VIRTUAL
ENVIRONMENTS
BOEING 787
FLIGHT
SIMULATOR
FROM ALTEON
IS 376
August 21, 2014
BEGINNING WITH FLIGHT SIMULATORS, ADVANCING THROUGH SCIENTIFIC
APPLICATIONS, AND INTO THE ENTERTAINMENT ARENA, VIRTUAL
ENVIRONMENTS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE AN IMMERSIVE
SIMULATED EXPERIENCE WITHOUT THE EXPENSE AND RISK ASSOCIATED
WITH THE REAL THING.
MOLECULAR SIMULATION
AT ARGONNE NATIONAL
LABORATORY
MATTEL POWER GLOVE, VECTREX 3D IMAGER,
AND NINTENDO VIRTUAL BOY
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
Page 2
DIGITAL
3D
ADVANCES IN DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND STEREOSCOPY HAVE ENABLED FILMMAKERS TO
AFFORDABLY PRODUCE 3D FILMS AND THEATRE OWNERS TO AFFORDABLY SHOW THEM.
A 3D DIGITAL CAMERA RECORDS VIDEO, CIRCULARLY
POLARIZING THE RIGHT VIEWPOINT USING RIGHTHANDED POLARIZATION...
BOTH IMAGES ARE PROJECTED SIMULTANEOUSLY
ONTO THE THEATRE SCREEN, IN A MANNER THAT
GUARANTEES THAT THE VIEWPOINTS ARE
SYNCHRONIZED.
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August 21, 2014
...WHILE RECORDING THE LEFT VIEWPOINT
USING LEFT-HANDED CIRCULAR
POLARIZATION.
THE MOVIEGOER WEARS POLARIZED GLASSES THAT
ONLY ALLOW THE RIGHT-HANDED POLARIZED
IMAGES TO PASS THROUGH THE RIGHT LENS AND
THE LEFT-HANDED POLARIZED IMAGES TO PASS
THROUGH THE LEFT LENS.
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
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VERGENCE VS.
ACCOMMODATION
PROJECTING A 3D IMAGE ONTO A 2D SCREEN OR
TELEVISION DISPLAY TENDS TO PLAY TRICKS WITH
ONE’S VISUAL PERCEPTION.
IN THE REAL WORLD, WHEN A PERSON TRIES TO FOCUS
ON A DISTANT OBJECT, THE EYES EXPERIENCE VERGENCE,
WHERE THEY BOTH ROTATE ON THEIR OWN VERTICAL
AXES UNTIL THEY BOTH POINT AT THE OBJECT.
MEANWHILE, THE EYES EXPERIENCE
ACCOMMODATION, WHERE THEY REFLEXIVELY FOCUS
ON THE OBJECT IN ITS DISTANT POSITION, CAUSING
NEARBY OBJECTS TO GO OUT OF FOCUS.
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August 21, 2014
WITH 3D IMAGES, HOWEVER, THE EYES ROTATE SO
THEY ARE POINTED TO WHERE THE OBJECT SEEMS
TO BE, BUT THE REFLEXIVE FOCUS MUST ADJUST TO
THE SCREEN’S ACTUAL LOCATION, ELIMINATING THE
NATURAL BLURRING OF NEARBY OBJECTS.
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
THIS RESULTS IN SERIOUS
EYESTRAIN AND HEADACHES FOR
MANY 3D AUDIENCE MEMBERS.
Page 4
SIMULATOR
SICKNESS
EFFORTS TO MAKE VR
SIMULATIONS AS REALISTIC AS
POSSIBLE FREQUENTLY HAVE
UNPLEASANT SIDE EFFECTS.
FOR EXAMPLE, PROVIDING A
VISUAL HEADBOB (LIKE THE
ONE ILLUSTRATED AT RIGHT),
WITHOUT AN ACCOMPANYING
PHYSICAL MOTION, CAN RESULT
IN MOTION SICKNESS AND
NAUSEA.
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August 21, 2014
SIMILAR PROBLEMS TEND TO OCCUR WITH RAPID CHANGES
IN ACCELERATION AND RAPID SHIFTS IN PERSPECTIVE.
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
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BALANCE &
THE INNER EAR
THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
WITHIN THE INNER EAR
CONTAIN HAIR CELLS THAT
REACT TO BODY MOVEMENTS.
THESE REACTIONS ARE
TRANSMITTED BY MEANS OF THE
VESTIBULAR NERVE TO THE
BRAIN, WHICH SUBCONSCIOUSLY
SENDS MESSAGES TO THE
BODY’S TRUNK AND LIMBS TO
MAINTAIN BALANCE.
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August 21, 2014
WHEN THE EYES SEND THE BRAIN A DIFFERENT MESSAGE
REGARDING THE BODY’S MOVEMENTS, THE BRAIN MAY
REACT ADVERSELY, CAUSING A LOSS OF BALANCE.
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
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VR
LATENCY
WHEN THE VR SYSTEM’S PROCESSING TIME IS
EXCESSIVE, ITS REACTIONS TO THE USER’S
ACTIONS WILL LAG BEHIND, WHICH DESTROYS
THE ILLUSION OF IMMERSION WHEN IT
BECOMES NOTICEABLE TO THE USER.
LATENCY IS PARTICULARLY
PROBLEMATIC IN
“AUGMENTED REALITY”
APPLICATIONS, WHERE
VIRTUAL OBJECTS ARE
OVERLAID ON THE USER’S
REAL WORLD SETTING, SINCE
THE VIRTUAL AND THE REAL
SHOULD OSTENSIBLY BE
INTERACTING.
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August 21, 2014
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
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OCULUS
RIFT
Head-Mounted Display
(Coated in white markers)
Head Straps
Camera
(Tracks markers to record
user’s head position)
Circuit Board
Screen
Foam Padding
(Fits to face)
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August 21, 2014
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
Diopter Adjustment
Lenses
(Rotate to fine tune so
(Three pairs are
eyeglasses aren’t needed)
provided to
accommodate good,
moderate, and heavy
nearsightedness)
Page 8
VR
HEADSETS
Oculus Rift
Carl Zeiss Cinemizer
Silicon Micro Display ST1080
Sony HMZ-T2
640x800 Resolution
870x500 Resolution
1920x1080 Resolution
1280x720 Resolution
90° Horizontal FOV
30° Horizontal FOV
39° Horizontal FOV
45° Horizontal FOV
13.4 Ounces
4.2 Ounces
6.3 Ounces
11.6 Ounces
7˝ Diagonal Display
0.39˝ Diagonal Display
0.74˝ Diagonal Display
0.7˝ Diagonal Display
Liquid Crystal Display
Organic Light-Emitting Diode
Liquid Crystal on Silicon
Organic Light-Emitting Diode
$300
$749
$799
$894
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August 21, 2014
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
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THE OCULUS RIFT
EXPERIENCE
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August 21, 2014
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
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FACEBOOK PAYS $2
BILLION FOR OCULUS
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August 21, 2014
“Our mission is to make the world more open and
connected. For the past few years, this has mostly
meant building mobile apps that help you share with
the people you care about. We have a lot more to
do on mobile, but at this point we feel we're in a
position where we can start focusing on what
platforms will come next to enable even more useful,
entertaining and personal experiences…
“After games, we're going to make Oculus a platform
for many other experiences. Imagine enjoying a court
side seat at a game, studying in a classroom of
students and teachers all over the world or
consulting with a doctor face-to-face -- just by
putting on goggles in your home.
“This is really a new communication platform. By
feeling truly present, you can share unbounded
spaces and experiences with the people in your life.
Imagine sharing not just moments with your friends
online, but entire experiences and adventures.”
Mark Zuckerberg
March 25, 2014
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
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Google’s response to the $350 Oculus
Rift Developer’s Kit is this do-it-yourself
“Oculus Thrift” which turns Android
devices into portable VR viewers, using
an open source software developers kit.
GOOGLE
CARDBOARD
Cardboard
($2)
Lenses
($10)
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August 21, 2014
Magnets
($6)
Velcro
($3)
Rubber Band
(1¢)
REMINDER:
Next Thursday (8/28) is the deadline
for the early draft of the first paper!
NEXT TIME:
Professor Kapatamoyo speaks!
VIRTUAL REALITY’S MOMENT
Page 12

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