Serving Adults and Youth With Disabilities Under WIOA

California Workforce
Association Youth
Conference 2015
Overview of WIOA
 President Obama signed WIOA into law on July 22, 2014.
 Wide bipartisan majority (The Senate voted 93-5 and the
House of Representatives voted 415-6).
Reaffirms ongoing role of American Job Centers.
Promotes program coordination and alignment of key
employment, education, and training programs at the Federal,
State, local, and regional levels.
Builds on proven practices such as sector strategies, career
pathways, regional economic approaches, work-based training.
Complements and supports the President’s Job-Driven
Workforce Vision and report issued by VP,
Programs under the Workforce Innovation
and Opportunity Act
Identifies the following as “core programs” that must
engage in joint planning and report on common
performance measures:
 Adults, Dislocated Workers, and Youth formula programs
and Wagner-Peyser employment services administered
by the Department of Labor; and
 Adult education and literacy programs and Vocational
Rehabilitation state grant programs that assist
individuals with disabilities in obtaining employment
administered by the Department of Education.
Authorizes the Job Corps, YouthBuild, Apprenticeships
Indian and Native Americans, and Migrant and Seasonal
Farmworker programs, and evaluation and research
activities conducted by DOL.
Requires states to strategically align
workforce development programs
 Single Unified Strategic Plan - Every state will
develop and submit a four-year strategy for core
 Must be jointly approved by the Secretaries of
Labor and Education within 90 days of receipt.
 Combined State Plan option– States can include
other key partners such as Jobs for Veterans State
Grant program, Unemployment Insurance, Trade
Adjustment Assistance, Temporary Assistance for
Needy Families (TANF), Perkins career and
technical education programs.
Increases the quality and accessibility of services at
 States will establish criteria to certify AJCs are
accessible at least every 3 years to ensure
continuous improvement, access to services
(including virtual services), and integrated
service delivery.
 Key programs and services will be available at
 Wagner-Peyser Employment Service is
required to co-locate at AJCs.
 TANF is a new AJC required partner.
 States/local areas will integrate intake, case
management, and reporting systems, including
fiscal and management accountability systems.
WIOA-Focus on Disconnected Youth
• Must spend at least 75 percent of funds on out-of-
school youth, compared to 30 percent under WIA.
• Also changes youth eligibility requirements by
establishing separate criteria for out-of-school and
in-school youth
If you are serving Out of School or Disconnected Youth
You are Serving Youth with Disabilities !!!
• Swd drop out at 2X rates of peers w/o disabilities.
Students with ED have worst outcomes.
• Arrest rates are relatively high for SWD who drop out.
Between 28 percent and 43 percent of detained and
incarcerated youthful offenders have an identified special
education disability, a majority being learning disabilities.
Youth in Care have Many and Multiple Health
and Behavioral Health Care Needs
Of youth who enter the child welfare system:
• Almost 90% have some health problem or need
• 55% have two or more chronic health care conditions
• Almost 25% have three or more chronic health care
• 30-60% have developmental delays
• 50-80% have mental and behavioral health problems
• 30-40% are receiving special education services
WIOA -Separate criteria for out-of-school and in-school youth
In School Youth 14 to 21
Must be low-income;
• attending school (as defined by State
law); and
• one or more of the following:
• Basic skills deficient; youth subject to the
juvenile or adult justice system; youth who
are homeless, a runaway, in foster care or
aged out of such care, pregnant or
parenting; or youth who have a disability.
Out of School Youth- 16 to 24
No Income Eligibility for:
• school dropouts;
• youth who have not attended school for
the most recent calendar quarter;
youth subject to the juvenile or adult
justice system;
youth who are homeless, a runaway, in
foster care or aged out of such care,
pregnant or parenting;
or youth who have a disability.
Also includes low-income youth who are:
• basic skills deficient,
• English language learners, or
• Need additional assistance to enter or
complete an educational program or
secure or hold employment.
Improves services to individuals with
• AJCs will provide physical and programmatic accessibility to
employment and training services for individuals with
• Local boards may designate a standing committee to
• provide information and assist with operational and other
issues related to compliance with non-discrimination and
applicable accessibility requirements
• provide input regarding appropriate training for staff on these
• Establishes a committee to advise the Secretary of Labor on
strategies to increase competitive integrated employment for
individuals with disabilities.
• Includes Departments of Labor, Education, Health and
Human Services, Social Security Administration, and other
Career Pathways for Youth
● Registered Apprenticeship is recognized
as a career pathway for Job Corps
● The Youth program may offer preapprenticeship training to prepare youth
for Registered Apprenticeship.
● YouthBuild may offer work experience
and skills training in coordination with preapprenticeship and Registered
Apprenticeship programs.
Enhances the Job Corps program
Focus on opportunities that will lead to successful careers resulting in
economic self-sufficiency and prospects for advancement or
enrollment in postsecondary education,
Amends assignment plan to provide for placements at centers closest
to home that offer the type of career and technical education selected
by the individual rather than just the centers closest to home.
Adds two exceptions to the general limitation that the period of
enrollment is not to exceed two years. Under WIA the only exception
was for completion for an advanced career training program.
 Under WIOA the first addition is for individuals with disabilities
who would reasonably be expected to graduate if allowed to
participate for up to 1 additional year. This provision could have
significant implications since a large percentage of Job Corps
enrollees have disabilities.
 The second is for individuals who participate in national service
programs for a period equal to the period of national service
Career Development Is Featured Prominently
Throughout WIOA-Title II Adult Ed
• Increases funding for corrections education from not more
than 10 percent under WIA to not more than 20 percent.
• Can fund integrated education and training, career
pathways, concurrent enrollment, and transition to reentry initiatives and other services with the goal of
reducing recidivism
• Clarifies that integrated English literacy and civics education
programs may provide workforce training.
Vocational Rehabilitation –Strong emphasis on
Competitive Integrated Employment
 Allows State VR agencies to prioritize serving students with
 Allows State VR agencies to support advanced training in
STEM and other technical professions.
 Dedicates half of the Federal Supported Employment
program funds to provide youth with the most significant
disabilities with the supports they need, including extended
services of up to 4 years to enable them to obtain competitive
integrated employment
 Requires career counseling
Section 511-Limitations on Use of Subminimum Wage Pre-EmploymentUnder Age 24
Can’t be paid less than the Federal minimum wage unless
 individual received pre-employment transition services under the Rehabilitation
Act or transition services under the IDEA (job exploration counseling, workbased learning experiences, counseling on post-secondary opportunities,
workplace readiness training, and training on self-advocacy, other services if
funds are available, and
 the individual applied for vocational rehabilitation services and was found
ineligible (and has documentation of the finding), or
 was determined eligible for such services, has an individualized plan for
employment, has been working toward an employment outcome in the plan with
appropriate supports and services for a reasonable period of time without
success, and the individual’s vocational rehabilitation case has been closed.
• Must also receive career counseling and information referrals to Federal or
State and other resources that offer employment-related services and supports
which can not be provided by the entity with the certificate.
• Schools prohibited from contracting with sub-minimum wage providers for
“transition services”.
Section 511- Limitations on Use of Subminimum Wage
During Employment Regardless of Age
• Individual may not continue to be employed at
subminimum wage unless:
 every 6 months for the first year of such employment and
annually thereafter, the individual is provided by the
designated State unit career counseling and information
and referrals, and
 is informed by the employer of self-advocacy, selfdetermination and peer mentoring opportunities available
in the local area from an entity that does not have any
financial interest in the individual’s employment outcome.
Vocational Rehabilitation –Strong emphasis on
Competitive Integrated Employment
Increases services to youth with disabilities:
 Emphasizes need for ywd to have more opportunities to
practice and improve their workplace skills, to consider their
career interests, and get real-world experience
 Requires State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies to
make “pre-employment transition services” available to all
students with disabilities.
 Requires set aside of at least 15 percent of funds to
provide pre-employment transition services
Resources and Strategies
New Youth Program Elements
Five New Elements (total of 14 program elements)
● Financial literacy
● Entrepreneurial skills training
● Services that provide labor market and
employment information in the local area
● Activities that help youth transition to
postsecondary education and training
● Education offered concurrently with and in
the same context as workforce preparation
activities and training for a specific
occupation or occupational cluster
Emphasis on Work-based
Local Youth
Formula Funds
At least 20% of local Youth
formula funds must be used for
work activities such as:
Summer jobs
On-the-job training
Guideposts for Success
Five Essential Components for All Youth:
School-Based Preparatory Experiences
Career Preparation & Work-Based Learning
Youth Development & Leadership
Connecting Activities
Family Involvement & Supports
Guideposts for Disconnected and Target Populations
• Foster care,,
• Juvenile justice system, http://www.ncwd-
• Youth with mental health needs, http://www.ncwd-, and,
• Youth with learning disabilities, http://www.ncwd-
National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities
Re-entry Programs for Out of School Ywd
The variety of reasons that students with
disabilities drop out makes it difficult to implement
a uniform approach to reentry.
Most are so credit-deficient that returning to the
traditional school system to obtain a diploma
before they reach the allowable age limit is
A growing number of school-college partnerships
allow students with disabilities to simultaneously
earn high school and college credits.
Other Reentry options for Ywd include:
• district alternative schools and charter
schools specifically geared toward
returning dropouts;
high schools that integrate on-site job
training and enable students to earn credit
for work experience;
adult high schools which students can
attend in the evenings to acquire credits
toward a high school diploma while coenrolled in regular high schools;
adult high schools and adult education
programs at which students can apply
credits earned for life experience such as
employment, skills training certifications,
and military training toward a high school
adult education centers at which students
can complete their high school diploma
through self-paced classes, online classes,
or by meeting competencies;
• career and technology centers at which
students can obtain a GED, then enroll in a
career training program and earn credits
that transfer to degree programs at local
• online programs operated by charter
schools, adult education providers,
community colleges, for-profit
organizations, and public school districts
through which students can earn high
school credits;
• GED programs on college campuses that
enable students to obtain GEDs and get
support transitioning into postsecondary
• collaborative GED/career training programs
that enable students to obtain GEDs in
addition to occupational skills training.
Strategies for Locating and Reenrolling Students
• Phone calls and text messages.
• Letters. personalized letters to students asking them to
return to school.
Home visits. Teams of school personnel and volunteers
visit homes of out-of-school youth to encourage them to
return to school and provide them with their reenrollment
Social networking sites. School personnel “friend”
students on Facebook to share information with them
about reentry programs.
Information sharing between schools and districts.
Schools and districts share names of students who have
dropped out of school or reenrolled in school.
Collaboration with community-based organizations.
Youth-serving organizations provide student referrals or
serve as distribution sites for information on reentry
programs. Some provide outreach workers
Strategies for Locating and Reenrolling Students
• Partner with for-profit organizations. School districts pay
private companies that specialize in dropout recovery to locate
students and reenroll them
Reengagement fairs. Representatives from district schools,
charter schools, trade schools, community colleges, and GED
testing centers attend fairs to provide on reenrollment options.
Reengagement centers. Students attend centers to have their
transcripts evaluated, find out about reenrollment options, take
online credit recovery courses, and get life-skills training.
Media campaigns. Reentry programs are advertised in
newspapers, on cable television channels, radio stations,
billboards, and flyers posted throughout the community.
Direct outreach. School teams go to housing developments,
malls, sporting events, and other locations where out-of-school
youth congregate, to share information with youth about reentry
Six Characteristics of Reentry Programs
Promising Practices
Richmond Public Schools’ Dropout Prevention Initiative in Virginia
• Superintendent and mayor went door-to-door to meet with dropouts to
convince them to reenroll in school.
• Several teams also canvassed the city to locate out-of-school youth
• Students offered rides to the Adult Career Development Center where
counselors were on hand to help students develop Individualized
Learning Plans (ILPs) and to coordinate other services that would
facilitate their return to school (Calos, 2010).
• Recovery specialists continue to visit “no shows” and truant students
at their homes on an ongoing basis throughout the year.
• All recovered students participate in a two-day intake process during
which time a counselor and social worker review their transcripts, help
them develop long- and short-term goals, and problem-solve barriers
to their returning to school (
• With SWD IEP meetings are also held to determine what transition
services are needed .
Promising Practices
Volusia County Schools in Florida
• Offers online options at all of the district’s high schools, alternative
schools, dropout reentry programs, and community learning centers.
Students who are unable to attend school during regular school hours
can attend Volusia Virtual School, on either a full- or part-time basis.
Two Storefront Schools, specifically geared toward students who have
dropped out, have been in operation since 1992. Students take online
courses for half a day and spend the other half of the day working or
engaging in community service. Students earn credits for participating in
these activities, allowing for accelerated diploma completion.
The curriculum is performance-based and individualized, enabling
students with disabilities to progress at their own pace.
There are many embedded features of the online programs, such as textto-speech and graphic organizers, that also benefit students with
In addition to accommodations outlined on students’ IEPs, such as
having tests read to them and receiving extended time to complete tests,
teachers provide alternative instructional materials for students on an asneeded basis
Dropout Prevention Interventions for SWDWhat Seems to Work
• Assign adult advocates/mentors to students at risk of
dropping out.
• Utilize data systems that support a realistic diagnosis
of the number of students who drop out and that help
identify individual students at high risk of dropping
• Provide academic support and enrichment to improve
academic performance.
Dropout Prevention Interventions for SWD
Improve students’ classroom behavior and social skills.
• Personalize the learning environment and instructional
• Provide rigorous and relevant instruction to better engage
students in learning and incorporate job training/career
Career Development Process
- Three Components
• Self Exploration - Exploring their personal interests, skills,
values to better understand themselves
• Career Exploration - Learning about various career options
using online career information AND hands-on activities (meeting
employers, job shadowing, career mentors, workplace tours, etc.)
• Career Planning & Management – Developing a wide array of
skills and experience needed to pursue careers, postsecondary
ed, & other life goals: Work-based learning; Career/work
readiness skills; job search skills; financial literacy;
Career Development Strategies
Guidepost Area 2
All Youth Need:
 Self-exploration activities to learn about their skills, interests
& career options
 Career exploration activities including site visits, guest
speakers, job shadowing; includes learning about education/
training entry requirements & earning potential/benefits
 Opportunities to practice through work experiences i.e.
internships, community service work, part-time jobs
 Soft skills training to gain job-seeking & workplace basic skills
Career Development Strategies
Guidepost Area 2
In addition, youth with disabilities need:
To understand benefits planning
To learn to communicate their disability-related work support and
accommodation needs
To learn to find, formally request, & secure supports and
Self-Exploration Strategies-Career
Interest Inventories
• Many youth programs use free career interest inventory tools
that youth can access on the Internet/Others Develop Their
• Programs adapt their methods and materials to suit individual
youth needs.
• Programs use the career interest inventory results as a starting
point for engaging youth in exploration and planning for careers
and postsecondary education.
• Programs use other types of career assessment tools where
Self-Exploration Strategies
Using Career Assessments
• Shasta Co 21st Century Career Connections, CA
• Adapted RIASEC Inventory, Holland codes, universal design
• Created Multiple Intelligences and Interests tool
• Created TIPS for Success Guide to Transition document
• Ctr for Independent Living of North Central Florida
(CIL/NCF) High School/High Tech
• Use state career info system: Work Values Sorter, Learning Styles
Adapting self exploration methods to suit
Individual Needs
• For example, the LEAP Job Link program uses Envision
Your Career video for low/non-readers, deaf students,
and ESL students.”
• “Language free” – occupations and work-related tasks are
demonstrated silently, rather than described in text or with words.
Instructions for how to rate each occupation/task are also
demonstrated visually without words.
• The staff at Linking Learning to Life sometimes use a
Picture Interest Career Survey, which they obtained from
the local VR agency. Other times staff read career
descriptions and instructions to youth and assist youth
with writing their interests on paper as needed.
Using career interest inventory results as a starting point
for engaging youth in exploration and planning
STC3 developed
• TIPS for Success Guide to Transition document as a way for
youth to document their own career interest survey results and
other personal information.
• Career Pathway charts that define the course of study – the
sequence of courses available at high schools throughout the
region – that relate specifically to areas of career interest; and
• Mobility charts, which depict the possible career ladders in a
particular industry or career cluster such as health care or
Self-Exploration Resources
Sample Lessons, Activities & Tools:
• I Am Who I Am … And As Others See Me (Guideposts for Success
• Identifying Personal Values (Utah Education Network)
• How Likes and Dislikes Can Influence Career Choices (Georgia
Career Resource Network)
• O*NET Ability Profiler (identify your strengths), Interest
Profiler (identify types of work activities you like), Work Importance
Locator (identify what is important to you in a job)
Find links in ILP How-to Guide:
Self-Exploration Resources
• Using Career Interest Inventories to Inform Career Planning, Innovative
Strategies Practice Brief,
• Career Planning Begins with Assessment Guide, http://www.ncwd-
• O*NET Ability Profiler – A self-assessment tool that helps individuals
find their strengths and the occupations that match them.
• O*NET Interest Profiler – A self-assessment tool that helps individuals
discover what types of work activities they would like.
• O*NET Computerized Interest Profiler – A computer-generated version of the
Interest Profiler vocational interest assessment.
• O*NET Work Importance Locator – A self-assessment tool that helps
individuals pinpoint what is important to them in a job.
• O*NET Work Importance Profiler – A computer-generated version of the Work
Importance Locator.
Career Exploration Strategies
• Transitional Age Youth Program, Long Beach, CA
• Career Cruising: Airport visit exposed youth to 27 jobs
• Five-Day Checklist Extravaganza: Week-long job rotation
• Bay Cove Academy, Brookline, MA
• Job shadowing includes career scavenger hunt activity
Career Exploration Resources
Sample Lessons, Activities & Tools:
• Exploring Customer Service Jobs in Your Own Community;
Generations at Work (Guideposts for Success Activities)
• Career Investigation (Utah Education Network)
• Career Clusters Review and Occupational Exploration (Georgia)
• My Next Move - O*NET tool allows
students to match a profile of interests with different kinds of careers
• Career One Stop videos (U. S. Department of Labor,
Employment and Training Administration)
Find links in ILP How-to Guide:
Career Exploration Resources
• Career Exploration in Action, Innovative Strategies Practice Brief
How to Build Partnerships for Career Exploration: Using Job Shadows to Explore
the World of Work, Monadnock Center for Successful Transitions,
Bureau of Labor Statistics Career Exploration Resources
My Skills My Future, O*NET tool for those with previous work experience,, from U.S. Defense, Commerce, Education & Labor
Occupational Outlook Handbook,
State Open Access Resources for Career Exploration and Labor Market
California Occupational Guides,
provides detailed descriptive information for over 800 occupations including what
special training, licensing, or other requirements may be necessary to work in the
state of California for each occupation.
Work Experiences – Successful
Provide youth with soft skills training and guidance
Train youth in technical skills, or hard skills, as needed for specific
work experience setting
Devote significant time to developing and maintaining relationships
with employers
Clearly communicate what is expected of employers, youth, and
families upfront
Carefully match youth to opportunities based on individual interests
and skills
Provide on-going support to youth and employers throughout the
work experience
Career Planning & Management
Skill Building Strategies
Career/Work Readiness Skills Training
• First Jobs Academy, ME
• All youth must complete 4 weeks (6 hr/week) of pre-employment life
skills & job retention training (Curricula available online)
• Training on Communication, Critical Thinking & Problem-Solving,
Professionalism, Teamwork & Collaboration; Employer partners assist
in delivering training
• Open Meadow Alternative School, OR
• Several weeks of training hosted by employer partner
• Training in professional work culture, career planning, competitive
interviewing strategies, self marketing techniques, and networking skills
Career Planning & Management
Skill Building Resources
• Soft Skills Training
 ODEP’s Skills to Pay the Bills: Mastering Soft Skills for Workplace
Success curriculum,
Helping Youth Develop Soft Skills for Job Success: Tips for Parents and
Families InfoBrief
Soft Skills Podcast series,
Career Planning & Management
Skill Building Strategies
Work Experiences
• Linking Employment, Abilities and Potential, OH
• 10-week summer internship: various jobs at VA Medical Center and
other work sites matching individual youth’s interests
• Internship Learning Contract clarifies expectations for all
• Worksite Progress Report, supervisor shares feedback
• Palm Bay High School/High Tech, FL
• Students obtain internships through various connections: program
mentors, Chamber of Commerce, parents
• Internship Agreement defines intern duties, expectations
• Supervisor provides feedback via Student Evaluation form
Career Planning & Management
Skill Building Resources
More Sample Lessons, Activities & Tools in the Online ILP
How-to Guide address:
• Job Search Skills
• Youth Development and Leadership
• Career and Work Readiness Skills
• Work-Based Learning
• Financial Literacy
Career Planning & Management
Skill Building Resources
• Work-based Learning
 Engaging Youth in Work Experiences: An Innovative Strategies
Practice Brief,
 Work-based Learning Jumpstart:
 High School/High Tech Program Guide (Ch. 3: Career Preparation
and Work-based Learning Experiences),
 Road to Self-Sufficiency: A Guide to Entrepreneurship for Youth
with Disabilities,
Career Planning & Management
Skill Building Resources
• Work-based Learning
Internships: The On-Ramp to Employment, A Guide for Students with
Disabilities to Getting and Making the Most of an Internship, National
Consortium on Leadership & Disability for Youth (NCLD-Youth),
 Quality Work-Based Learning and Postschool Employment
Success: NCSET Issue Brief,
 Work-Based Learning and Future Employment for Youth: A Guide
for Parents and Guardians – NCSET Information Brief,
Disclosure and Accommodations
Disclosure—youth should decide when and how much to
tell others, and understand how their disability affects
their capacity to learn and/or perform effectively; they
should also be “aware”…
Accommodations—youth should be empowered to
determine what environmental adjustments, supports,
and services they need in order to access, participate and
excel in school, at work, and in the community.
Disability Disclosure Resources
• The 411 on Disability Disclosure: A Workbook for Youth with
• The 411 on Disability Disclosure: A Workbook for Families,
Educators, Youth Service Professionals, and Adult Allies Who
Care About Youth with Disabilities,
• Cyber Disclosure for Youth with Disabilities,
• Disability Disclosure Videos,
Accommodations Resources
• The Job Accommodation Network (JAN),
• JAN’s Searchable Online Accommodation Resource,
• Entering the World of Work: What Youth with Mental Health
Needs Should Know About Accommodations, ODEP,
ODEP and NCWD/Y Resources
• Individualized Learning Plans How-to Guide
• Blazing the Trail: A New Direction for Youth Development and Leadership:
Youth Call-to-Action
• The Hidden Disabilities Quick Reference Guide, http://www.ncwd-
• Paving the Way to Work: A Career Focused Mentoring Guide for Youth With
• Professional Development: Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities (KSA).
• Innovative Strategies Database —

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