Future of e-learning & disruptive technologies

Future technologies for
What are the disruptive technologies?
Judith Molka-Danielsen
[email protected]
April 2014
Disruptive technology
• Clayton Christensen presents the concept of ”disruptive innovation”
• 6 steps in the development of disruptive technology
1. New disruptive technology were first developed in established
2. Marketing requested feedback from customers (show weak forecasts)
3. Established company focuses on the development of the existing
(”sustained”) technology
4. New companies are formed based on the new ”disruptive” technology
5. The new technology develops – larger capacities, better capabilities
6. The established attempt to defend their markets (but the new comers
have a foothold in the new market).
1. Recent Approaches to E-Learning &
Technologies in Use
• Massive open online course (MOOC)
• Social Media with E-Learning Platforms
• Virtual Reality technologies
• Are these technologies extensions of ”sustained”
– Do the new technologies fix old ways of teaching?
– Dimensions (maybe) are: Old provider Universities for
”formal education” vs. the new entrants Private educators
for ”specialized learning” or ”self-learning”.
• http://himoldex.no/
• Open Course Platform
 YouTube Videos
 Course materials on
Fronter (guest account)
(+) ”Fotballproffer tester ny
studieløsning.” (DN, 2013)
(-) Lacks social interaction
(-) Learn by doing, not by
passive watching
Visual limitations of the recording – need screen
size of tablets or larger! Or slides separate.
Social Media with E-Learning Platforms
Babson Survey Research Group – 2012 (in EDUCAUSE Review, Sep/Oct 2013)
Reported uses of social media from a study of 3875 faculty
members in higher education:
– 33.8% for teaching (using videos, blogs or wikis)
– 44.7% for professional use (professional profiles and CVs)
– 64.4 % for personal use
Barriers to Adoption (in order of importance)
Integrity of student submissions
Concerns about privacy
Separate course and personal accounts
Grading and assessment
Inability to measure effectiveness
Lack of integration with LMS
Takes too much time to learn or use
Lack of support at my institution
Virtual Reality (technologies): why use them for learning?
In 3D virtual worlds students can:
• re-conceptualization of self is
possible allowing for selfdetermination and active
• Tasks can be designed in such a
way that they realistically
simulate real life.
• Games are often used as
incentive based approaches to
Recognized Uses of VR in Learning
• Role play
• Historical
• Information sharing
• Theme awareness
• 3D visualizations
• Simulations (weather)
• Virtual office space,
campuses, stores..
• Museums, libraries, art
• Scripted tools, objects,
• Performances, theatre,
social events, parties
• Political campaigns
• Workplace
collaboration and
<< VR support social interactions>>
E.g. ”Debating Course” in desktop Second Life
Students receiving theoretical
background of how to conduct a debate
Students giving a final
debate presentation
Extending desktop VR capabilities
– E.g Replay in vAcademia
Real time class
(Molka-Danielsen, et al., 2013)
Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE)
Immersive room (few have access to this environment)
• social behavior
• ethical dilemmas
In CAVE at University College London
2. Disruptive Technologies (for e-learning)?
Mobile Learning (Apps)
•Self Learning (apps)
(1) encourage progress,
notes in your email,
(2) integrate w/social
media. (You can compete
with your friends on
• Problem: They lack a level of
immediate social interaction, so
you lose interest after a while.
•Other e.g. – self monitoring
”Fitbit” (can also put data on FB)
Augmented Reality (AR)
AR is ”an array of apps, web tools, and
games designed to enhance learning
through interactive experiences”. ARDL
(AR-Development) is a concept that
makes virtual, 3D objects appear in the
real world, attached to real objects. Users
look through a VR Viewing Device to see
virtual objects like planets, volcanoes,
the human heart or dinosaurs.
(http://www.edudemic.com/augmentedreality-in-education/ )
• Star Walk – app uses your location data
provided by the GPS and compass built
into your device. Cross reference location
data with inbuilt map of the sky and
overlays the stars, planets, galaxies,
constellations and satellites names on
your screen.
Great potential for social learning – class trips!
InSightNOR app
(AR) & Mobile – smart eyewear
• Goal: Always on- always augmented – battery life the present design issue.
• Google Glass is one platform works with Google voice and a variety of social
media tools (e.g. Twitter, Facebook). Numerous privacy concerns!
• “Forrester Research recently reported that over 20 million U.S. consumers
are willing to wear augmented reality devices. Earlier this year, IHS
forecasted that the adoption of AR in smart-glass devices will drive volumes
of 10 million units through to 2016.” (Wired, 17.10.13)
• Blair MacIntyre, the director of the Augmented Environments Lab at Georgia
Tech, “suggested that with the small screen placed to the side, it would be
very hard to see and interact with the actual content on display.” He say that
“in one simple fake video, Google has created a level of overhype and over
expectation that their hardware cannot possibly live up to.”(cnet, 2012)
Oculus Rift VR
The brain is a predictive machine relying on
sensory informtion and previous
experience. Based on this it is predicting
the future. So, the more that the
predictions line up with what actually
happens, the more presense we feel. (Source:
Reality Check: what does the Oculus Rift do to your brain, 2013)
Oculus promo
Visual cues
of the Oculus
Rift seem to
be sufficient
to give our
brains a
degree of
Omni – motion in VR
Applications (Omni)
•Emergency Managment
Training &Simulation
•Architectual walk through
•Virtual tourism
•Education though
immersion in historical
replications of sites and
What technologies do you think are disruptive
for E-Learning?
• Your ideas?

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