Future technologies for e-Learning What are the disruptive technologies? Judith Molka-Danielsen [email protected] April 2014 Disruptive technology • Clayton Christensen presents the concept of ”disruptive innovation” http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/ • 6 steps in the development of disruptive technology 1. New disruptive technology were first developed in established companies 2. Marketing requested feedback from customers (show weak forecasts) 3. Established company focuses on the development of the existing (”sustained”) technology 4. New companies are formed based on the new ”disruptive” technology 5. The new technology develops – larger capacities, better capabilities 6. The established attempt to defend their markets (but the new comers have a foothold in the new market). 1. Recent Approaches to E-Learning & Technologies in Use • Massive open online course (MOOC) • Social Media with E-Learning Platforms • Virtual Reality technologies • Are these technologies extensions of ”sustained” approaches? – Do the new technologies fix old ways of teaching? – Dimensions (maybe) are: Old provider Universities for ”formal education” vs. the new entrants Private educators for ”specialized learning” or ”self-learning”. MOOC • http://himoldex.no/ • Open Course Platform YouTube Videos Course materials on Fronter (guest account) (+) ”Fotballproffer tester ny studieløsning.” (DN, 2013) (-) Lacks social interaction (-) Learn by doing, not by passive watching Visual limitations of the recording – need screen size of tablets or larger! Or slides separate. Social Media with E-Learning Platforms Babson Survey Research Group – 2012 (in EDUCAUSE Review, Sep/Oct 2013) Reported uses of social media from a study of 3875 faculty members in higher education: – 33.8% for teaching (using videos, blogs or wikis) – 44.7% for professional use (professional profiles and CVs) – 64.4 % for personal use Barriers to Adoption (in order of importance) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Integrity of student submissions Concerns about privacy Separate course and personal accounts Grading and assessment Inability to measure effectiveness Lack of integration with LMS Takes too much time to learn or use Lack of support at my institution Virtual Reality (technologies): why use them for learning? In 3D virtual worlds students can: • re-conceptualization of self is possible allowing for selfdetermination and active learning. • Tasks can be designed in such a way that they realistically simulate real life. • Games are often used as incentive based approaches to learning. Recognized Uses of VR in Learning • Role play • Historical representations • Information sharing • Theme awareness • 3D visualizations • Simulations (weather) • Virtual office space, campuses, stores.. • Museums, libraries, art galleries • Scripted tools, objects, animations • Performances, theatre, social events, parties • Political campaigns • Workplace collaboration and meetings << VR support social interactions>> E.g. ”Debating Course” in desktop Second Life Students receiving theoretical background of how to conduct a debate Students giving a final debate presentation Extending desktop VR capabilities – E.g Replay in vAcademia Real time class R0 Recording R1 Replay R1 Recording R2 http://vacademia.com/ (Molka-Danielsen, et al., 2013) Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) Immersive room (few have access to this environment) Learning • social behavior • ethical dilemmas In CAVE at University College London 2. Disruptive Technologies (for e-learning)? Augmented Reality Mobile Virtual Reality Mobile Learning (Apps) •Self Learning (apps) (1) encourage progress, notes in your email, (2) integrate w/social media. (You can compete with your friends on Facebook.) • Problem: They lack a level of immediate social interaction, so you lose interest after a while. •Other e.g. – self monitoring ”Fitbit” (can also put data on FB) http://www.fitbit.com/uk Augmented Reality (AR) • AR is ”an array of apps, web tools, and games designed to enhance learning through interactive experiences”. ARDL (AR-Development) is a concept that makes virtual, 3D objects appear in the real world, attached to real objects. Users look through a VR Viewing Device to see virtual objects like planets, volcanoes, the human heart or dinosaurs. (http://www.edudemic.com/augmentedreality-in-education/ ) • Star Walk – app uses your location data provided by the GPS and compass built into your device. Cross reference location data with inbuilt map of the sky and overlays the stars, planets, galaxies, constellations and satellites names on your screen. Great potential for social learning – class trips! InSightNOR app (AR) & Mobile – smart eyewear • Goal: Always on- always augmented – battery life the present design issue. • Google Glass is one platform works with Google voice and a variety of social media tools (e.g. Twitter, Facebook). Numerous privacy concerns! • “Forrester Research recently reported that over 20 million U.S. consumers are willing to wear augmented reality devices. Earlier this year, IHS forecasted that the adoption of AR in smart-glass devices will drive volumes of 10 million units through to 2016.” (Wired, 17.10.13) • Blair MacIntyre, the director of the Augmented Environments Lab at Georgia Tech, “suggested that with the small screen placed to the side, it would be very hard to see and interact with the actual content on display.” He say that “in one simple fake video, Google has created a level of overhype and over expectation that their hardware cannot possibly live up to.”(cnet, 2012) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IaU6DWb0yzs Oculus Rift VR The brain is a predictive machine relying on sensory informtion and previous experience. Based on this it is predicting the future. So, the more that the predictions line up with what actually happens, the more presense we feel. (Source: Reality Check: what does the Oculus Rift do to your brain, 2013) Oculus promo Visual cues of the Oculus Rift seem to be sufficient to give our brains a degree of presense. Omni – motion in VR Applications (Omni) •Emergency Managment Training &Simulation •Architectual walk through •Virtual tourism •Education though immersion in historical replications of sites and events What technologies do you think are disruptive for E-Learning? • Your ideas?